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Results: 1 to 20 of 46

  • Wrong UID 505329
1.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-A

The phenotypic spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressive early-onset form to a slowly progressive later-onset form. Children with MPS IVA have no distinctive clinical findings at birth. The severe form is usually apparent between ages one and three years, often first manifesting as kyphoscoliosis, knock-knee (genu valgum), and pectus carinatum; the slowly progressive form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence often first manifesting as hip problems (pain, stiffness, and Legg Perthes disease). Progressive bone and joint involvement leads to short stature, and pain and arthritis that become disabling. Involvement of other organ systems can lead to significant morbidity, including respiratory compromise, obstructive sleep apnea, valvular heart disease, hearing impairment, visual impairment from corneal clouding, dental abnormalities, and hepatomegaly. Compression of the spinal cord is a common complication that results in neurologic impairment. Children with MPS IVA have normal intellectual abilities at the outset of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
43375
Concept ID:
C0086651
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hurler syndrome

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes, Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome, no biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap; thus, affected individuals are best described as having either severe or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory-tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal. By age three years, linear growth ceases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound. Hearing loss is common. Death, typically caused by cardiorespiratory failure, usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decades to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities can be present. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. Hearing loss and cardiac valvular disease are common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
3.

ATR-X syndrome

Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATRX) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, severe developmental delays, hypotonia, intellectual disability, and mild-to-moderate anemia secondary to alpha-thalassemia. Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short nose, tented vermilion of the upper lip, and thick or everted vermilion of the lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. Although all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies range from hypospadias and undescended testicles to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Global developmental delays are evident in infancy and some affected individuals never walk independently or develop significant speech. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337145
Concept ID:
C1845055
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Coffin-Lowry syndrome

Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Intellect ranges from normal to profoundly impaired in heterozygous females. The facial appearance is characteristic in the affected, older male child or adult. The hands are short, soft, and fleshy, often with remarkably hyperextensible fingers that taper from wide (proximally) to narrow with small terminal phalanges and nails. Males are consistently below the third centile in height. Microcephaly is common. Cardiac abnormalities may be present and can contribute to premature death. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Life span may be reduced. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Congenital Abnormality
5.

Melnick-Needles syndrome

The otopalatodigital (OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type I (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type II (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience progression of skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. Prenatal lethality is most common in males with MNS. TODPD is a female limited condition, characterized by terminal skeletal dysplasia, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
6292
Concept ID:
C0025237
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome

Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS) is characterized by cerebellar ataxia with cerebellar atrophy, early-onset (not necessarily congenital) cataracts, mild to severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, and muscle weakness. Additional features are short stature and various skeletal abnormalities including scoliosis. Children with MSS usually present with muscular hypotonia in early infancy; distal and proximal muscular weakness is noticed during the first decade of life. Later, cerebellar findings of truncal ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, and dysarthria become apparent. Motor function worsens progressively for some years, then stabilizes at an unpredictable age and degree of severity. Cataracts can develop rapidly and typically require lens extraction in the first decade of life. Although many adults are severely handicapped, life span in MSS appears to be near normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
6222
Concept ID:
C0024814
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I

The otopalatodigital (OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type I (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type II (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience progression of skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. Prenatal lethality is most common in males with MNS. TODPD is a female limited condition, characterized by terminal skeletal dysplasia, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78542
Concept ID:
C0265251
Congenital Abnormality
8.

Frontometaphyseal dysplasia

The otopalatodigital (OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type I (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type II (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience progression of skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. Prenatal lethality is most common in males with MNS. TODPD is a female limited condition, characterized by terminal skeletal dysplasia, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82703
Concept ID:
C0265293
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Cutis laxa, X-linked

Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome (OHS), and ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy (DMN) are disorders of copper transport caused by mutations in the copper-transporting ATPase gene (ATP7A). Infants with classic Menkes disease appear healthy until age two to three months, when loss of developmental milestones, hypotonia, seizures, and failure to thrive occur. The diagnosis is usually suspected when infants exhibit typical neurologic changes and concomitant characteristic changes of the hair (short, sparse, coarse, twisted, and often lightly pigmented). Temperature instability and hypoglycemia may be present in the neonatal period. Death usually occurs by age three years. Occipital horn syndrome is characterized by "occipital horns," distinctive wedge-shaped calcifications at the sites of attachment of the trapezius muscle and the sternocleidomastoid muscle to the occipital bone. Occipital horns may be clinically palpable or observed on skull radiographs. Individuals with OHS also have lax skin and joints, bladder diverticula, inguinal hernias, and vascular tortuosity. Intellect is normal or slightly reduced. ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, an adult-onset disorder resembling Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, shares none of the clinical or biochemical abnormalities characteristic of Menkes disease or OHS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82793
Concept ID:
C0268353
Congenital Abnormality
10.

Radial aplasia-thrombocytopenia syndrome

Thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by bilateral absence of the radii with the presence of both thumbs and thrombocytopenia (<50 platelets/nL) that is generally transient. Thrombocytopenia may be congenital or may develop within the first few weeks to months of life; in general, thrombocytopenic episodes decrease with age. Cow’s milk allergy is common and can be associated with exacerbation of thrombocytopenia. Other anomalies of the skeleton (upper and lower limbs, ribs, and vertebrae), heart, and genitourinary system (renal anomalies and agenesis of uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina) can occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61235
Concept ID:
C0175703
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Coffin-Siris syndrome

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth digit, distinctive facial features, and moderate to severe developmental/cognitive delay. Expressive language is more severely affected than receptive language. On average, children with CSS learn to sit at 12 months, walk at 30 months, and speak their first words at 24 months. Other findings commonly include failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, short stature, ophthalmologic abnormalities, microcephaly, brain malformations, and hearing loss. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75565
Concept ID:
C0265338
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Fucosidosis

Fucosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase with accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Clinical features include angiokeratoma, progressive psychomotor retardation, neurologic signs, coarse facial features, and dysostosis multiplex. Fucosidosis has been classified into 2 major types. Type 1 is characterized by rapid psychomotor regression and severe neurologic deterioration beginning at about 6 months of age, elevated sweat sodium chloride, and death within the first decade of life. Type 2 is characterized by milder psychomotor retardation and neurologic signs, the development of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, normal sweat salinity, and longer survival (Kousseff et al., 1976). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
5288
Concept ID:
C0016788
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Weaver syndrome

EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variants is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Neuronal migration disorders have also been reported in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Malignancies (including neuroblastoma and hematologic malignancies) may occur with increased frequently; current data are insufficient to draw conclusions. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type II

Congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation (abbreviated here as CDG-N-linked), are a group of disorders of N-linked oligosaccharides caused by deficiency in 42 different enzymes in the N-linked synthetic pathway. Most commonly, the disorders begin in infancy; manifestations range from severe developmental delay and hypotonia with multiple organ system involvement to hypoglycemia and protein-losing enteropathy with normal development. However, most types have been described in only a few individuals, and thus understanding of the phenotypes is limited. In PMM2-CDG (CDG-Ia), the most common type reported, the clinical presentation and course are highly variable, ranging from death in infancy to mild involvement in adults. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
87610
Concept ID:
C0349654
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-B

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia and corneal clouding. There is no central nervous system involvement and intelligence is normal. There is increased urinary keratan sulfate excretion (Suzuki et al., 2001). See mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (253000), also known as Morquio syndroem A, a genetically distinct disorder with overlapping clinical features caused by mutation in the GALNS gene (612222). There may also be a nonkeratansulfate-excreting form of Morquio syndrome, so-called type C (252300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
43376
Concept ID:
C0086652
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia

Cantú syndrome and the related disorders acromegaloid facial appearance (AFA) and hypertrichosis and acromegaloid facial features (HAFF) are characterized by congenital hypertrichosis; distinctive coarse facial features (including broad nasal bridge, wide mouth with full lips and macroglossia); enlarged heart (increased ventricular mass, enlarged chambers, and normal cardiac function); and skeletal abnormalities (thickening of the calvaria, broad ribs, scoliosis, and flaring of the metaphyses). Other cardiovascular abnormalities may include patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (in 50%), pericardial effusion (20%), and increased vascular tortuosity. Intellect is typically normal; behavioral problems can include anxiety, mood swings, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tics. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
208647
Concept ID:
C0795905
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Juvenile GM>1< gangliosidosis

GM1-gangliosidosis type II is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by slowly progressive generalized neurodegeneration and mild skeletal changes, with onset between 7 months and 3 years of age. Unlike the severe infantile type I, type II is usually not associated with macular cherry-red spots or organomegaly. Within type II, those with somewhat earlier onset and earlier death are considered to have the 'late-infantile' form, whereas those with slightly later onset and survival into late childhood are referred to as having the 'juvenile' form (Caciotti et al., 2003). However, there is no strict age marker to distinguish between these 2 type II forms. GLB1 enzyme activity in type II ranges from approximately 1 to 4% of control values (Nishimoto et al., 1991; Yoshida et al., 1991). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120625
Concept ID:
C0268272
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Schwartz Jampel syndrome type 1

A syndrome of short stature; generalized myotonia with contractures of major joints, microstomia, and muscle rigidity; ocular anomalies, mainly blepharophimosis; and characteristic facies marked by pinched or frozen smile puckered lips. Some degree of mental retardation occurs in about 25% of patients. The affected children usually appear normal at birth and the symptoms become recognizable at 1 to 3 years of age. Malignant hyperthermia is a potentially lethal hazard during anesthesia. [from MCA/MR]

MedGen UID:
19892
Concept ID:
C0036391
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Marshall syndrome

Stickler syndrome is a group of hereditary conditions characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, eye abnormalities, hearing loss, and joint problems. These signs and symptoms vary widely among affected individuals. A characteristic feature of Stickler syndrome is a somewhat flattened facial appearance. This is caused by underdeveloped bones in the middle of the face, including the cheekbones and the bridge of the nose. A particular group of physical features, called Pierre Robin sequence, is also common in people with Stickler syndrome. Robin sequence includes an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate), a tongue that is placed further back than normal (glossoptosis), and a small lower jaw (micrognathia). This combination of features can lead to feeding problems and difficulty breathing. Many people with Stickler syndrome have severe nearsightedness (high myopia). In some cases, the clear gel that fills the eyeball (the vitreous) has an abnormal appearance, which is visible upon eye examination. Other eye problems are also common, including increased pressure within the eye (glaucoma), clouding of the lens of the eyes (cataracts), and tearing of the lining of the eye (retinal detachment). These eye abnormalities can cause impaired vision or blindness in some cases. Another feature of Stickler syndrome is hearing loss. The degree of hearing loss varies among affected individuals and may become more severe over time. Most people with Stickler syndrome have skeletal abnormalities that affect the joints. The joints of affected children and young adults may be loose and very flexible (hypermobile), though joints become less flexible with age. Arthritis often appears early in life and may cause joint pain or stiffness. Problems with the bones of the spine (vertebrae) may also occur, including abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis or kyphosis) and flattened vertebrae (platyspondyly). These spinal abnormalities may cause back pain. Researchers have described several types of Stickler syndrome, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their characteristic signs and symptoms. In particular, the eye abnormalities and severity of hearing loss differ among the types. Type I has the highest risk of retinal detachment. Type II also includes eye abnormalities, but type III does not (and is often called non-ocular Stickler syndrome). Types II and III are more likely than type I to have hearing loss. Types IV and V are very rare and have only been diagnosed in a few individuals. A similar condition called Marshall syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, eye abnormalities, hearing loss, and early-onset arthritis. Marshall syndrome can also include short stature, which is typically not seen in people with Stickler syndrome. Whether Marshall syndrome represents a variant of Stickler syndrome or a separate disorder is controversial.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
82694
Concept ID:
C0265235
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Desbuquois syndrome

Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia belonging to the multiple dislocation group and characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation (stature less than -5 SD), joint laxity, short extremities, and progressive scoliosis. The main radiologic features are short long bones with metaphyseal splay, a 'Swedish key' appearance of the proximal femur (exaggerated trochanter), and advanced carpal and tarsal bone age with a delta phalanx (summary by Huber et al., 2009). Desbuquois dysplasia is clinically and radiographically heterogeneous, and had been classified into 2 types based on the presence (type 1) or absence (type 2) of characteristic hand anomalies, including an extra ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, delta phalanx, bifid distal thumb phalanx, and dislocation of the interphalangeal joints (Faivre et al., 2004). However, patients with and without these additional hand anomalies have been reported to have mutations in the same gene (see, e.g., CANT1); thus, these features are not distinctive criteria to predict the molecular basis of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). In addition, Kim et al. (2010) described another milder variant of DBQD with almost normal outwardly appearing hands, but significant radiographic changes, including short metacarpals, elongated phalanges, and remarkably advanced carpal bone age. However, there is no accessory ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, and patients do not have thumb anomalies. Similar changes occur in the feet. These patients also tend to develop precocious osteoarthritis of the hand and spine with age. This phenotype is sometimes referred to as the 'Kim variant' of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Desbuquois Dysplasia DBQD2 (615777) is caused by mutation in the XYLT1 gene (608124) on chromosome 16p12. Two unrelated patients with immunodeficiency-23 (IMD23; 615816), due to mutation in the PGM3 gene (172100), were reported to have skeletal features reminiscent of DBQD. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
98479
Concept ID:
C0432242
Disease or Syndrome

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