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Results: 1 to 20 of 27

1.

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) includes Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), PTEN-related Proteus syndrome (PS), and Proteus-like syndrome. CS is a multiple hamartoma syndrome with a high risk for benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid, breast, and endometrium. Affected individuals usually have macrocephaly, trichilemmomas, and papillomatous papules, and present by the late 20s. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 85%, with an average age of diagnosis between 38 and 46 years. The lifetime risk for thyroid cancer (usually follicular, rarely papillary, but never medullary thyroid cancer) is approximately 35%. The risk for endometrial cancer, although not well defined, may approach 28%. BRRS is a congenital disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal hamartomatous polyposis, lipomas, and pigmented macules of the glans penis. PS is a complex, highly variable disorder involving congenital malformations and hamartomatous overgrowth of multiple tissues, as well as connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. Proteus-like syndrome is undefined but refers to individuals with significant clinical features of PS who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for PS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78554
Concept ID:
C0265326
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to failure to thrive in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Congenital Abnormality
3.

DiGeorge sequence

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a range of findings including the following: Congenital heart disease (74% of individuals), particularly conotruncal malformations (tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, and truncus arteriosus). Palatal abnormalities (69%), particularly velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate. Characteristic facial features (present in the majority of individuals of northern European heritage). Learning difficulties (70%-90%). An immune deficiency (regardless of the clinical presentation) (77%) . Additional findings include the following: Hypocalcemia (50%). Significant feeding and swallowing problems; constipation with or without structural gastrointestinal anomalies (intestinal malrotation, imperforate anus, and Hirschsprung disease). Renal anomalies (31%). Hearing loss (both conductive and sensorineural). Laryngotracheoesophageal anomalies. Growth hormone deficiency. Autoimmune disorders. Seizures (idiopathic or associated with hypocalcemia). CNS anomalies including tethered cord. Skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis with or without vertebral anomalies, clubbed feet, polydactyly, and craniosynostosis). Ophthalmologic abnormalities (strabismus, posterior embryotoxon, tortuous retinal vessels, scleracornea, and anophthalmia). Enamel hypoplasia. Malignancies (rare). Developmental delay (in particular delays in emergence of language), intellectual disability, and learning differences (non-verbal learning disability where the verbal IQ is significantly greater than the performance IQ) are common. Autism or autistic spectrum disorder is found in approximately 20% of children and psychiatric illness (specifically schizophrenia) is present in 25% of adults; however, attention deficit disorder, anxiety, perseveration, and difficulty with social interactions are also common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Supravalvar aortic stenosis

Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a heart defect that develops before birth. This defect is a narrowing (stenosis) of the large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body (the aorta). The condition is described as supravalvular because the section of the aorta that is narrowed is located just above the valve that connects the aorta with the heart (the aortic valve). Some people with SVAS also have defects in other blood vessels, most commonly stenosis of the artery from the heart to the lungs (the pulmonary artery). An abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur) can often be heard during a chest exam. If SVAS is not treated, the aortic narrowing can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and ultimately heart failure. The severity of SVAS varies considerably, even among family members. Some affected individuals die in infancy, while others never experience symptoms of the disorder.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
2001
Concept ID:
C0003499
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a, with or without extraocular involvement

Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) refers to at least seven genetically defined strabismus syndromes: CFEOM1A, CFEOM1B, CFEOM2, CFEOM3A, CFEOM3B, CFEOM3C, and Tukel syndrome, characterized by congenital non-progressive ophthalmoplegia (inability to move the eyes) with or without ptosis (droopy eyelids) affecting part or all of the oculomotor nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve III) and its innervated muscles (superior, medial, and inferior recti, inferior oblique, and levator palpabrae superioris) and/or the trochlear nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve IV) and its innervated muscle (the superior oblique). In general, affected individuals have severe limitation of vertical gaze (usually upgaze) and variable limitation of horizontal gaze. Individuals with CFEOM frequently compensate for the ophthalmoplegia by maintaining abnormal head positions at rest and by moving their heads rather than their eyes to track objects. Individuals with CFEOM3A may also have intellectual disability, social disability, facial weakness, and/or a progressive axonal peripheral neuropathy (a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease). Individuals with CFEOM3C also have intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism reminiscent of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome. Individuals with Tukel syndrome also have postaxial oligodactyly or oligosyndactyly of the hands. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
412638
Concept ID:
C2748801
Disease or Syndrome
6.

11q partial monosomy syndrome

Jacobsen syndrome is a condition caused by a loss of genetic material from chromosome 11. Because this deletion occurs at the end (terminus) of the long (q) arm of chromosome 11, Jacobsen syndrome is also known as 11q terminal deletion disorder. The signs and symptoms of Jacobsen syndrome vary considerably. Most affected individuals have delayed development, including the development of motor skills (such as sitting, standing, and walking) and speech. Most also have cognitive impairment and learning difficulties. Behavioral problems have been reported, including compulsive behavior (such as shredding paper), a short attention span, and easy distractibility. Many people with Jacobsen syndrome have been diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Jacobsen syndrome is also characterized by distinctive facial features. These include small and low-set ears, widely set eyes (hypertelorism) with droopy eyelids (ptosis), skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds), a broad nasal bridge, downturned corners of the mouth, a thin upper lip, and a small lower jaw. Affected individuals often have a large head size (macrocephaly) and a skull abnormality called trigonocephaly, which gives the forehead a pointed appearance. More than 90 percent of people with Jacobsen syndrome have a bleeding disorder called Paris-Trousseau syndrome. This condition causes a lifelong risk of abnormal bleeding and easy bruising. Paris-Trousseau syndrome is a disorder of platelets, which are blood cell fragments that are necessary for blood clotting. Other features of Jacobsen syndrome can include heart defects, feeding difficulties in infancy, short stature, frequent ear and sinus infections, and skeletal abnormalities. The disorder can also affect the digestive system, kidneys, and genitalia. The life expectancy of people with Jacobsen syndrome is unknown, although affected individuals have lived into adulthood.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
162878
Concept ID:
C0795841
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Multiple joint dislocations, short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects

This autosomal recessive phenotype consists of dysmorphic facies, bilateral dislocations of the elbows, hips, and knees, clubfeet, and short stature, as well as cardiovascular defects (summary by Bonaventure et al., 1992). Phenotypic similarities have been noted between this syndrome and Larsen syndrome (150250), an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation in the FLNB gene (603381), as well as spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations (143095), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the CHST3 gene (603799) (Bonaventure et al., 1992; Baasanjav et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
383706
Concept ID:
C1855536
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Senior-Loken syndrome 4

Senior-Løken syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of two specific features: a kidney condition called nephronophthisis and an eye condition known as Leber congenital amaurosis. Nephronophthisis causes fluid-filled cysts to develop in the kidneys beginning in childhood. These cysts impair kidney function, initially causing increased urine production (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), general weakness, and extreme tiredness (fatigue). Nephronophthisis leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in childhood or in adolescence. ESRD is a life-threatening failure of kidney function that occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to filter fluids and waste products from the body effectively. Leber congenital amaurosis primarily affects the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. This condition causes vision problems, including an increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), and extreme farsightedness (hyperopia). Some people with Senior-Løken syndrome develop the signs of Leber congenital amaurosis within the first few years of life, while others do not develop vision problems until later in childhood.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
337697
Concept ID:
C1846979
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Duane syndrome type 2

Duane syndrome is a strabismus syndrome characterized by congenital non-progressive horizontal ophthalmoplegia (inability to move the eyes) primarily affecting the abducens nucleus and nerve and its innervated extraocular muscle, the lateral rectus muscle. At birth, affected infants have restricted ability to move the affected eye(s) outward (abduction) and/or inward (adduction). In addition, the globe retracts into the orbit with attempted adduction, accompanied by narrowing of the palpebral fissure. Most individuals with Duane syndrome have strabismus in primary gaze but can use a compensatory head position to align the eyes, and thus can preserve single binocular vision and avoid diplopia. Individuals with Duane syndrome who lack binocular vision are at risk for amblyopia. Approximately 70% of individuals with Duane syndrome have isolated Duane syndrome; i.e., they do not have other detected congenital anomalies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
196721
Concept ID:
C0751083
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Brain small vessel disease with hemorrhage

The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity variably associated with porencephaly, cerebral aneurysms, eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, Raynaud phenomenon, and cardiac arrhythmia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps (HANAC) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
375217
Concept ID:
C1843512
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 2

Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) refers to at least seven genetically defined strabismus syndromes: CFEOM1A, CFEOM1B, CFEOM2, CFEOM3A, CFEOM3B, CFEOM3C, and Tukel syndrome, characterized by congenital non-progressive ophthalmoplegia (inability to move the eyes) with or without ptosis (droopy eyelids) affecting part or all of the oculomotor nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve III) and its innervated muscles (superior, medial, and inferior recti, inferior oblique, and levator palpabrae superioris) and/or the trochlear nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve IV) and its innervated muscle (the superior oblique). In general, affected individuals have severe limitation of vertical gaze (usually upgaze) and variable limitation of horizontal gaze. Individuals with CFEOM frequently compensate for the ophthalmoplegia by maintaining abnormal head positions at rest and by moving their heads rather than their eyes to track objects. Individuals with CFEOM3A may also have intellectual disability, social disability, facial weakness, and/or a progressive axonal peripheral neuropathy (a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease). Individuals with CFEOM3C also have intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism reminiscent of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome. Individuals with Tukel syndrome also have postaxial oligodactyly or oligosyndactyly of the hands. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
356119
Concept ID:
C1865915
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Nystagmus 6, congenital, X-linked

Classic congenital or infantile nystagmus presents as conjugate, horizontal oscillations of the eyes, in primary or eccentric gaze, often with a preferred head turn or tilt. Other associated features may include mildly decreased visual acuity, strabismus, astigmatism, and occasionally head nodding. Eye movement recordings reveal that infantile nystagmus is predominantly a horizontal jerk waveform, with a diagnostic accelerating velocity slow phase. However, pendular and triangular waveforms may also be present. The nystagmus may rarely be vertical. As these patients often have normal visual acuity, it is presumed that the nystagmus represents a primary defect in the parts of the brain responsible for ocular motor control; thus the disorder has sometimes been termed 'congenital motor nystagmus' (Tarpey et al., 2006; Shiels et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital nystagmus, see NYS1 (310700). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
463102
Concept ID:
C3151752
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Cataract, autosomal dominant

Mutations in the CRYAA gene have been found to cause multiple types of cataract, which have been described as nuclear, zonular central nuclear, laminar, lamellar, anterior polar, posterior polar, cortical, embryonal, anterior subcapsular, fan-shaped, and total. Cataract associated with microcornea, sometimes called the cataract-microcornea syndrome, is also caused by mutation in the CRYAA gene. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive modes of inheritance have been reported. The symbol CATC1 was formerly used for the autosomal recessive form of cataract caused by mutation in the CRYAA gene. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
347693
Concept ID:
C1858679
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Cataract, coppock-like

Mutations in the CRYGC gene have been found to cause several types of cataract, which have been described as Coppock-like; embryonic, fetal, infantile nuclear; zonular pulverulent; and lamellar. Some patients also exhibit microcornea. Before it was known that mutations in the CRYGC gene cause several types of cataract, this entry was titled 'Cataract, Coppock-like,' with the symbol CCL. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343810
Concept ID:
C1852438
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Cognitive impairment with or without cerebellar ataxia

MedGen UID:
482045
Concept ID:
C3280415
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Bornholm eye disease

Bornholm eye disease consists of X-linked high myopia, amblyopia, and deuteranopia. Associated signs include optic nerve hypoplasia, reduced electroretinographic (ERG) flicker, and nonspecific retinal pigment abnormalities (Schwartz et al., 1990). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
463611
Concept ID:
C3159311
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Mental retardation, anterior maxillary protrusion, and strabismus

MedGen UID:
462274
Concept ID:
C3150924
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Hemifacial hyperplasia strabismus

MedGen UID:
330655
Concept ID:
C1841640
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Mental and growth retardation with amblyopia

MedGen UID:
331885
Concept ID:
C1835028
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Craniosynostosis with ocular abnormalities and hallucal defects

MedGen UID:
331266
Concept ID:
C1842316
Disease or Syndrome

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