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Waardenburg syndrome type 4A(WS4A)

MedGen UID:
341244
Concept ID:
C1848519
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Hirschsprung disease with pigmentary anomaly; Waardenburg Syndrome Type IVA; WAARDENBURG SYNDROME WITH HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, TYPE 4A; Waardenburg syndrome, type 4; Waardenburg syndrome, type 4A; WAARDENBURG SYNDROME, TYPE IVA; Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease; Waardenburg-Shah syndrome; WS4A
Modes of inheritance:
Heterogeneous
MedGen UID:
5539
Concept ID:
C0019409
Qualitative Concept
Made up of elements or ingredients that are not alike.
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Autosomal recessive inheritance refers to genetic conditions that occur only when mutations are present in both copies of a given gene (i.e., the person is homozygous for a mutation, or carries two different mutations of the same gene, a state referred to as compound heterozygosity).
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Autosomal dominant inheritance refers to genetic conditions that occur when a mutation is present in one copy of a given gene (i.e., the person is heterozygous).
 
Gene: EDNRB
Cytogenetic location: 13q22.3
OMIM®: 277580

Definition

Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes, congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 4A is caused by mutation in the EDNRB gene (131244). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III (WS3; 148820) has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type 4 has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is genetically heterogeneous. WS4B (613265) is caused by mutation in the EDN3 gene (131242) on chromosome 20q13, and WS4C (613266) is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229) on chromosome 22q13. [from OMIM]

Additional description

From GHR
Waardenburg syndrome is a group of genetic conditions that can cause hearing loss and changes in coloring (pigmentation) of the hair, skin, and eyes. Although most people with Waardenburg syndrome have normal hearing, moderate to profound hearing loss can occur in one or both ears. The hearing loss is present from birth (congenital). People with this condition often have very pale blue eyes or different colored eyes, such as one blue eye and one brown eye. Sometimes one eye has segments of two different colors. Distinctive hair coloring (such as a patch of white hair or hair that prematurely turns gray) is another common sign of the condition. The features of Waardenburg syndrome vary among affected individuals, even among people in the same family. The four known types of Waardenburg syndrome are distinguished by their physical characteristics and sometimes by their genetic cause. Types I and II have very similar features, although people with type I almost always have eyes that appear widely spaced and people with type II do not. In addition, hearing loss occurs more often in people with type II than in those with type I. Type III (sometimes called Klein-Waardenburg syndrome) includes abnormalities of the upper limbs in addition to hearing loss and changes in pigmentation. Type IV (also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome) has signs and symptoms of both Waardenburg syndrome and Hirschsprung disease, an intestinal disorder that causes severe constipation or blockage of the intestine.  http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/waardenburg-syndrome

Clinical features

White eyelashes
MedGen UID:
332275
Concept ID:
C1836736
Finding
White eyebrow
MedGen UID:
500922
Concept ID:
CN002019
Finding
White color (lack of pigmentation) of the eyebrow.
Heterochromic iris
MedGen UID:
98395
Concept ID:
C0423318
Finding
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
409575
Concept ID:
C1963184
Finding
Blue irides
MedGen UID:
500890
Concept ID:
CN000597
Finding
A markedly blue coloration of the iris.
Sensorineural hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
504436
Concept ID:
CN000380
Finding
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Autonomic dysregulation
MedGen UID:
373161
Concept ID:
C1836729
Finding
Ataxia
MedGen UID:
504767
Concept ID:
CN001146
Finding
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- oder overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
504774
Concept ID:
CN001157
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Polyneuropathy
MedGen UID:
504780
Concept ID:
CN001165
Finding
A generalized disorder of peripheral nerves.
Aganglionic megacolon
MedGen UID:
505171
Concept ID:
CN002042
Finding
An abnormality resulting from a lack of intestinal ganglion cells (i.e., an aganglionic section of bowel) that results in bowel obstruction with enlargement of the colon.
Spastic paraparesis
MedGen UID:
505196
Concept ID:
CN002101
Finding
Leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
505231
Concept ID:
CN002194
Finding
Leukodystrophy refers to deterioration of white matter of the brain resulting from degeneration of myelin sheaths in the CNS. Their basic defect is directly related to the synthesis and maintenance of myelin membranes.
Aganglionic megacolon
MedGen UID:
505171
Concept ID:
CN002042
Finding
An abnormality resulting from a lack of intestinal ganglion cells (i.e., an aganglionic section of bowel) that results in bowel obstruction with enlargement of the colon.
Premature graying of hair
MedGen UID:
75524
Concept ID:
C0263498
Disease or Syndrome
Hypopigmented skin patches
MedGen UID:
373164
Concept ID:
C1836735
Finding
White eyelashes
MedGen UID:
332275
Concept ID:
C1836736
Finding
White forelock
MedGen UID:
505158
Concept ID:
CN002004
Finding
A triangular depigmented region of white hairs located in the anterior midline of the scalp.
White eyebrow
MedGen UID:
500922
Concept ID:
CN002019
Finding
White color (lack of pigmentation) of the eyebrow.
Muscular hypotonia
MedGen UID:
504768
Concept ID:
CN001147
Finding
Muscular hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. Hypotonia is characterized by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
Spastic paraparesis
MedGen UID:
505196
Concept ID:
CN002101
Finding

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews

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