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Wilson disease(WD)

MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Hepatolenticular degeneration; WD; Wilson's disease
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: HPO
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
SNOMED CT: Wilson's disease (88518009); Hepatolenticular degeneration syndrome (88518009); Copper storage disease (88518009); Cerebral pseudosclerosis (88518009); Westphal-Strümpell syndrome (88518009); Westphal-Strumpell syndrome (88518009); Wilson disease (88518009); Westphal-Strumpell syndrome (190823004); Cerebral pseudosclerosis (192640001); Hepatocerebral degeneration (88518009); Hepatolenticular degeneration (88518009); Kinnier-Wilson disease (88518009); Neurohepatic degeneration (88518009); Progressive lenticular degeneration (88518009); WD - Wilson's disease (88518009)
 
Gene (location): ATP7B (13q14.3)
OMIM®: 277900
Orphanet: ORPHA905

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Wilson Disease
Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to over 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body.  [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Karl Heinz Weiss   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dramatic build-up of intracellular hepatic copper with subsequent hepatic and neurologic abnormalities. De Bie et al. (2007) provided a detailed review of the molecular pathogenesis of Wilson disease.  http://www.omim.org/entry/277900
From GHR
Wilson disease is an inherited disorder in which excessive amounts of copper accumulate in the body, particularly in the liver, brain, and eyes. The signs and symptoms of Wilson disease usually first appear between the ages of 6 and 45, but they most often begin during the teenage years. The features of this condition include a combination of liver disease and neurological and psychiatric problems.Liver disease is typically the initial feature of Wilson disease in affected children and young adults; individuals diagnosed at an older age usually do not have symptoms of liver problems, although they may have very mild liver disease. The signs and symptoms of liver disease include yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes (jaundice), fatigue, loss of appetite, and abdominal swelling.Nervous system or psychiatric problems are often the initial features in individuals diagnosed in adulthood and commonly occur in young adults with Wilson disease. Signs and symptoms of these problems can include clumsiness, tremors, difficulty walking, speech problems, impaired thinking ability, depression, anxiety, and mood swings.In many individuals with Wilson disease, copper deposits in the front surface of the eye (the cornea) form a green-to-brownish ring, called the Kayser-Fleischer ring, that surrounds the colored part of the eye. Abnormalities in eye movements, such as a restricted ability to gaze upwards, may also occur.  http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/wilson-disease

Clinical features

Hypoparathyroidism
MedGen UID:
6985
Concept ID:
C0020626
Disease or Syndrome
A condition caused by a deficiency of parathyroid hormone characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.
Kayser-Fleischer ring
MedGen UID:
57539
Concept ID:
C0152457
Disease or Syndrome
Grey-green or brownish-pigmented ring in the deep epithelial layers at the outer border of the cornea.
Hemolytic anemia
MedGen UID:
1916
Concept ID:
C0002878
Disease or Syndrome
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
Glycosuria
MedGen UID:
42267
Concept ID:
C0017979
Finding
An increased concentration of glucose in the urine.
Hypercalciuria
MedGen UID:
43775
Concept ID:
C0020438
Disease or Syndrome
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
Proteinuria
MedGen UID:
10976
Concept ID:
C0033687
Finding
Increased levels of protein in the urine.
Renal tubular dysfunction
MedGen UID:
57484
Concept ID:
C0151747
Disease or Syndrome
disease of the kidney structure called tubule
Aminoaciduria
MedGen UID:
116067
Concept ID:
C0238621
Disease or Syndrome
An increased concentration of an amino acid in the urine.
Hyperphosphaturia
MedGen UID:
78638
Concept ID:
C0268079
Disease or Syndrome
An increased excretion of phosphates in the urine.
Nephrolithiasis
MedGen UID:
98227
Concept ID:
C0392525
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of calculi (stones) in the kidneys.
Coma
MedGen UID:
1054
Concept ID:
C0009421
Disease or Syndrome
A coma is a deep state of unconsciousness. An individual in a coma is alive but unable to move or respond to his or her environment. Coma may occur as a complication of an underlying illness, or as a result of injuries, such as brain injury. A coma rarely lasts more than 2 to 4 weeks. The outcome for coma depends on the cause, severity, and site of the damage. People may come out of a coma with physical, intellectual, and psychological problems. Some people may remain in a coma for years or even decades. For those people, the most common cause of death is infection, such as pneumonia. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
If you have a swallowing disorder, you may have difficulty or pain when swallowing. Some people cannot swallow at all. Others may have trouble swallowing liquids, foods, or saliva. This makes it hard to eat. Often, it can be difficult to take in enough calories and fluids to nourish your body. Anyone can have a swallowing disorder, but it is more likely in the elderly. It often happens because of other conditions, including. - Nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy. - Problems with your esophagus, including GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). - Stroke. - Head or spinal cord injury. - Cancer of the head, neck, or esophagus. Medicines can help some people, while others may need surgery. Swallowing treatment with a speech-language pathologist can help. You may find it helpful to change your diet or hold your head or neck in a certain way when you eat. In very serious cases, people may need feeding tubes. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
Dribbling from mouth
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Sign or Symptom
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Dystonia
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive movements and/or postures. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and twisting, and may be associated with tremor. Dystonia is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. Dystonia can be classified clinically according to age of onset, body distribution, temporal pattern, and associated features (i.e., isolated dystonia – in which it is the only motor feature except tremor; combined dystonia – in which another movement disorder is present; or complex dystonia – in which other neurologic or systemic manifestations are present).
Tremor
MedGen UID:
21635
Concept ID:
C0040822
Sign or Symptom
Tremors are unintentional trembling or shaking movements in one or more parts of your body. Most tremors occur in the hands. You can also have arm, head, face, vocal cord, trunk, and leg tremors. Tremors are most common in middle-aged and older people, but anyone can have them. The cause of tremors is a problem in the parts of the brain that control muscles in the body or in specific parts of the body, such as the hands. They commonly occur in otherwise healthy people. They may also be caused by problems such as. -Parkinson's disease. -Dystonia. -Multiple sclerosis. -Stroke. -Traumatic brain injury. -Alcohol abuse and withdrawal. -Certain medicines. Some forms are inherited and run in families. Others have no known cause. . There is no cure for most tremors. Treatment to relieve them depends on their cause. In many cases, medicines and sometimes surgical procedures can reduce or stop tremors and improve muscle control. Tremors are not life threatening. However, they can be embarrassing and make it hard to perform daily tasks. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Polyneuropathy
MedGen UID:
57502
Concept ID:
C0152025
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized disorder of peripheral nerves.
Personality changes
MedGen UID:
66817
Concept ID:
C0240735
Sign or Symptom
An abnormal shift in patterns of thinking, acting, or feeling.
Dementia
MedGen UID:
99229
Concept ID:
C0497327
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dementia is the name for a group of symptoms caused by disorders that affect the brain. It is not a specific disease. People with dementia may not be able to think well enough to do normal activities, such as getting dressed or eating. They may lose their ability to solve problems or control their emotions. Their personalities may change. They may become agitated or see things that are not there. . Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia. However, memory loss by itself does not mean you have dementia. People with dementia have serious problems with two or more brain functions, such as memory and language. Although dementia is common in very elderly people, it is not part of normal aging. Many different diseases can cause dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Drugs are available to treat some of these diseases. While these drugs cannot cure dementia or repair brain damage, they may improve symptoms or slow down the disease. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Poor motor coordination
MedGen UID:
338471
Concept ID:
C1848453
Finding
Mixed demyelinating and axonal polyneuropathy
MedGen UID:
870461
Concept ID:
C4024907
Disease or Syndrome
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
If you have a swallowing disorder, you may have difficulty or pain when swallowing. Some people cannot swallow at all. Others may have trouble swallowing liquids, foods, or saliva. This makes it hard to eat. Often, it can be difficult to take in enough calories and fluids to nourish your body. Anyone can have a swallowing disorder, but it is more likely in the elderly. It often happens because of other conditions, including. - Nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy. - Problems with your esophagus, including GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). - Stroke. - Head or spinal cord injury. - Cancer of the head, neck, or esophagus. Medicines can help some people, while others may need surgery. Swallowing treatment with a speech-language pathologist can help. You may find it helpful to change your diet or hold your head or neck in a certain way when you eat. In very serious cases, people may need feeding tubes. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
Esophageal varix
MedGen UID:
5027
Concept ID:
C0014867
Finding
Extreme dilation of the submucusoal veins in the lower portion of the esophagus.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Sign or Symptom
Enlargement of the liver.
Liver Cirrhosis
MedGen UID:
7368
Concept ID:
C0023890
Disease or Syndrome
Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver. Scar tissue forms because of injury or long-term disease. Scar tissue cannot do what healthy liver tissue does - make protein, help fight infections, clean the blood, help digest food and store energy. Cirrhosis can lead to . -Easy bruising or bleeding, or nosebleeds. -Swelling of the abdomen or legs . -Extra sensitivity to medicines. -High blood pressure in the vein entering the liver. -Enlarged veins called varices in the esophagus and stomach. Varices can bleed suddenly. - Kidney failure. -Jaundice. -Severe itching. -Gallstones. A small number of people with cirrhosis get liver cancer. Your doctor will diagnose cirrhosis with blood tests, imaging tests, or a biopsy. Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States, the most common causes are chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. Nothing will make the scar tissue disappear, but treating the cause can keep it from getting worse. If too much scar tissue forms, you may need to consider a liver transplant. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Hepatic failure
MedGen UID:
88444
Concept ID:
C0085605
Disease or Syndrome
severe inability of the liver to function normally, as evidenced by severe jaundice and abnormal levels of ammonia, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and reversal of the albumin/globulin ratio.
Atypical or prolonged hepatitis
MedGen UID:
338473
Concept ID:
C1848456
Disease or Syndrome
Atypical or prolonged hepatitis
MedGen UID:
338473
Concept ID:
C1848456
Disease or Syndrome
Glycosuria
MedGen UID:
42267
Concept ID:
C0017979
Finding
An increased concentration of glucose in the urine.
Hypercalciuria
MedGen UID:
43775
Concept ID:
C0020438
Disease or Syndrome
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
Proteinuria
MedGen UID:
10976
Concept ID:
C0033687
Finding
Increased levels of protein in the urine.
Aminoaciduria
MedGen UID:
116067
Concept ID:
C0238621
Disease or Syndrome
An increased concentration of an amino acid in the urine.
Hyperphosphaturia
MedGen UID:
78638
Concept ID:
C0268079
Disease or Syndrome
An increased excretion of phosphates in the urine.
High nonceruloplasmin-bound serum copper
MedGen UID:
341229
Concept ID:
C1848459
Finding
An increased concentration of non ceruloplasmin bound copper in the blood.
Osteoarthritis susceptibility 1
MedGen UID:
45244
Concept ID:
C0029408
Disease or Syndrome
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the joints characterized by degradation of the hyaline articular cartilage and remodeling of the subchondral bone with sclerosis (Meulenbelt et al., 2006). Clinical problems include pain and joint stiffness often leading to significant disability and joint replacement. Osteoarthritis exhibits a clear predilection for specific joints; it appears most commonly in the hip and knee joints and lumbar and cervical spine, as well as in the distal interphalangeal and the first carpometacarpal (base of thumb) and proximal interphalangeal joints of the hand; however, patients with osteoarthritis may have 1, a few, or all of these sites affected (Stefansson et al., 2003). According to a conservative estimate, greater than 70% of the population of the United States at age 65 years is affected by the disease, reflecting its age dependence. <Subhead Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Osteoarthritis Susceptibility to osteoarthritis has been associated with variation in other genes: OS2 (140600) with variation in the MATN3 gene (602109) on chromosome 2p24; OS3 (607850) with variation in the ASPN gene (608135) on chromosome 9q22; and OS5 (612400) with variation in the GDF5 gene (601146) on chromosome 20q11. Other susceptibility loci for osteoarthritis have been mapped to chromosomes 2q33 (OS4; 610839) and 3p24 (OS6; 612401).
Osteomalacia
MedGen UID:
14533
Concept ID:
C0029442
Disease or Syndrome
Osteomalacia is a general term for bone weakness owing to a defect in mineralization of the protein framework known as osteoid. This defective mineralization is mainly caused by lack in vitamin D. Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets.
Osteoporosis
MedGen UID:
14535
Concept ID:
C0029456
Disease or Syndrome
Osteoporosis makes your bones weak and more likely to break. Anyone can develop osteoporosis, but it is common in older women. As many as half of all women and a quarter of men older than 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis. Risk factors include . - Getting older . - Being small and thin . - Having a family history of osteoporosis. - Taking certain medicines. - Being a white or Asian woman. - Having osteopenia, which is low bone density. Osteoporosis is a silent disease. You might not know you have it until you break a bone. A bone mineral density test is the best way to check your bone health. To keep bones strong, eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, exercise and do not smoke. If needed, medicines can also help. . NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.
Chondrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
154303
Concept ID:
C0553730
Disease or Syndrome
Radiographic evidence of articular calcification that represent calcium pyrophosphate depositions in soft tissue surrounding joints and at the insertions of tendons near joints (Entheses/Sharpey fibers) .
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The ability of a joint to move beyond its normal range of motion.
Dribbling from mouth
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Sign or Symptom
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Chondrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
154303
Concept ID:
C0553730
Disease or Syndrome
Radiographic evidence of articular calcification that represent calcium pyrophosphate depositions in soft tissue surrounding joints and at the insertions of tendons near joints (Entheses/Sharpey fibers) .

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Wilson disease in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Albanese A, Asmus F, Bhatia KP, Elia AE, Elibol B, Filippini G, Gasser T, Krauss JK, Nardocci N, Newton A, Valls-Solé J
Eur J Neurol 2011 Jan;18(1):5-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03042.x. PMID: 20482602
Roberts EA, Schilsky ML; American Association for Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)
Hepatology 2008 Jun;47(6):2089-111. doi: 10.1002/hep.22261. PMID: 18506894

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Kelly D, Crotty G, O'Mullane J, Stapleton M, Sweeney B, O'Sullivan SS
Ir Med J 2016 Jan;109(1):341-3. PMID: 26904791
Pfeiffenberger J, Mogler C, Gotthardt DN, Schulze-Bergkamen H, Litwin T, Reuner U, Hefter H, Huster D, Schemmer P, Członkowska A, Schirmacher P, Stremmel W, Cassiman D, Weiss KH
Liver Int 2015 May;35(5):1615-22. Epub 2014 Nov 23 doi: 10.1111/liv.12727. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25369181
van Meer S, de Man RA, van den Berg AP, Houwen RH, Linn FH, van Oijen MG, Siersema PD, van Erpecum KJ
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Mar;30(3):535-9. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12716. PMID: 25160780
Arat N, Kaçar S, Gölbaşı Z, Akdoğan M, Kuran S
Turk J Gastroenterol 2014 Dec;25(6):678-84. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2014.5949. PMID: 25599781
Beinhardt S, Leiss W, Stättermayer AF, Graziadei I, Zoller H, Stauber R, Maieron A, Datz C, Steindl-Munda P, Hofer H, Vogel W, Trauner M, Ferenci P
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Apr;12(4):683-9. Epub 2013 Sep 25 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.09.025. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24076416

Diagnosis

Guggilla SR, Senagari JR, Rao PN, Madireddi S
Gene 2015 Sep 10;569(1):83-7. Epub 2015 May 14 doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.05.031. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25982861
Paradisi I, De Freitas L, Arias S
Eur J Med Genet 2015 Feb;58(2):59-65. Epub 2014 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.12.007. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25497208
Pfeiffenberger J, Mogler C, Gotthardt DN, Schulze-Bergkamen H, Litwin T, Reuner U, Hefter H, Huster D, Schemmer P, Członkowska A, Schirmacher P, Stremmel W, Cassiman D, Weiss KH
Liver Int 2015 May;35(5):1615-22. Epub 2014 Nov 23 doi: 10.1111/liv.12727. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25369181
Schaefer M, Gotthardt DN, Didion C, Stremmel W, Weiss KH
J Clin Gastroenterol 2015 Aug;49(7):e61-3. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000248. PMID: 25291347
van Meer S, de Man RA, van den Berg AP, Houwen RH, Linn FH, van Oijen MG, Siersema PD, van Erpecum KJ
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Mar;30(3):535-9. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12716. PMID: 25160780

Therapy

Ranjan A, Kalita J, Kumar V, Misra UK
Neurotoxicology 2015 Jul;49:45-9. Epub 2015 May 21 doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2015.05.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26004675
Ala A, Aliu E, Schilsky ML
Dig Dis Sci 2015 May;60(5):1433-9. Epub 2015 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s10620-014-3495-6. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25605552Free PMC Article
Schaefer M, Gotthardt DN, Didion C, Stremmel W, Weiss KH
J Clin Gastroenterol 2015 Aug;49(7):e61-3. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000248. PMID: 25291347
Kim JS, Kim SY, Choi JY, Kim HT, Oh YS
J Clin Neurosci 2014 Aug;21(8):1460-2. Epub 2014 Jan 30 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2013.10.036. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24726229
Weiss KH, Thurik F, Gotthardt DN, Schäfer M, Teufel U, Wiegand F, Merle U, Ferenci-Foerster D, Maieron A, Stauber R, Zoller H, Schmidt HH, Reuner U, Hefter H, Trocello JM, Houwen RH, Ferenci P, Stremmel W; EUROWILSON Consortium
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 Aug;11(8):1028-35.e1-2. Epub 2013 Mar 28 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.03.012. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23542331

Prognosis

Kelly D, Crotty G, O'Mullane J, Stapleton M, Sweeney B, O'Sullivan SS
Ir Med J 2016 Jan;109(1):341-3. PMID: 26904791
Pfeiffenberger J, Mogler C, Gotthardt DN, Schulze-Bergkamen H, Litwin T, Reuner U, Hefter H, Huster D, Schemmer P, Członkowska A, Schirmacher P, Stremmel W, Cassiman D, Weiss KH
Liver Int 2015 May;35(5):1615-22. Epub 2014 Nov 23 doi: 10.1111/liv.12727. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25369181
Schaefer M, Gotthardt DN, Didion C, Stremmel W, Weiss KH
J Clin Gastroenterol 2015 Aug;49(7):e61-3. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000248. PMID: 25291347
van Meer S, de Man RA, van den Berg AP, Houwen RH, Linn FH, van Oijen MG, Siersema PD, van Erpecum KJ
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Mar;30(3):535-9. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12716. PMID: 25160780
Beinhardt S, Leiss W, Stättermayer AF, Graziadei I, Zoller H, Stauber R, Maieron A, Datz C, Steindl-Munda P, Hofer H, Vogel W, Trauner M, Ferenci P
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Apr;12(4):683-9. Epub 2013 Sep 25 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.09.025. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24076416

Clinical prediction guides

Kelly D, Crotty G, O'Mullane J, Stapleton M, Sweeney B, O'Sullivan SS
Ir Med J 2016 Jan;109(1):341-3. PMID: 26904791
Yagci MA, Tardu A, Karagul S, Ertugrul I, Ince V, Kirmizi S, Unal B, Isik B, Kayaalp C, Yilmaz S
Transplant Proc 2015 Jun;47(5):1469-73. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2015.04.017. PMID: 26093745
Stättermayer AF, Traussnigg S, Dienes HP, Aigner E, Stauber R, Lackner K, Hofer H, Stift J, Wrba F, Stadlmayr A, Datz C, Strasser M, Maieron A, Trauner M, Ferenci P
J Hepatol 2015 Jul;63(1):156-63. Epub 2015 Feb 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.01.034. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25678388
van Meer S, de Man RA, van den Berg AP, Houwen RH, Linn FH, van Oijen MG, Siersema PD, van Erpecum KJ
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Mar;30(3):535-9. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12716. PMID: 25160780
Beinhardt S, Leiss W, Stättermayer AF, Graziadei I, Zoller H, Stauber R, Maieron A, Datz C, Steindl-Munda P, Hofer H, Vogel W, Trauner M, Ferenci P
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Apr;12(4):683-9. Epub 2013 Sep 25 doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.09.025. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24076416

Recent systematic reviews

van Meer S, de Man RA, van den Berg AP, Houwen RH, Linn FH, van Oijen MG, Siersema PD, van Erpecum KJ
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Mar;30(3):535-9. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12716. PMID: 25160780
Wiggelinkhuizen M, Tilanus ME, Bollen CW, Houwen RH
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009 May 1;29(9):947-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.03959.x. PMID: 19210288
Roberts EA, Schilsky ML; American Association for Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)
Hepatology 2008 Jun;47(6):2089-111. doi: 10.1002/hep.22261. PMID: 18506894
Stapelbroek JM, Bollen CW, van Amstel JK, van Erpecum KJ, van Hattum J, van den Berg LH, Klomp LW, Houwen RH
J Hepatol 2004 Nov;41(5):758-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2004.07.017. PMID: 15519648
Roberts EA, Schilsky ML; Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Hepatology 2003 Jun;37(6):1475-92. doi: 10.1053/jhep.2003.50252. PMID: 12774027

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