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Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of neutrophil function resulting from a deficiency of the beta-2 integrin subunit of the leukocyte cell adhesion molecule. The leukocyte cell adhesion molecule is present on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes and granulocytes and mediates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. LAD is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections; impaired pus formation and wound healing; abnormalities of a wide variety of adhesion-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes; and a lack of beta-2/alpha-L, beta-2/alpha-M, and beta-2/alpha-X expression. [from OMIM]

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Disease or Syndrome

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency - type 1

A rare immunodeficiency with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. It is caused by mutation in the ITGB2 gene on chromosome 21 which codes for the beta subunit of beta-2 integrin (CD18). The mutation results in significantly reduced or absent expression of CD18 on the surface of leukocytes which impairs their ability to migrate and interact with antigens. Initial clinical signs include omphalitis and delayed separation of the umbilical cord. The clinical course is marked by recurrent bacterial and fungal infection without pus formation. In instances where there is < 1% expression of CD18, prognosis is dismal with a high likelihood for life-threatening infection within the first year of life. [from NCI]

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