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Alcohol dependence

MedGen UID:
1801
Concept ID:
C0001973
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE, PROTECTION AGAINST; ALCOHOLISM
SNOMED CT: Alcohol dependence (66590003); Chronic alcoholism (66590003); Alcoholism (7200002); Persistent alcohol abuse (284591009); Chronic alcohol abuse (284591009); Alcohol dependence syndrome (66590003); Dipsomania (7200002); Alcohol problem drinking (7200002)
 
Genes (locations): ADH1B (4q23); ADH1C (4q23); GABRA2 (4p12); HTR2A (13q14.2); RCBTB1 (13q14.2); TAS2R16 (7q31.32)
OMIM®: 103780

Definition

For most adults, moderate alcohol use is probably not harmful. However, about 18 million adult Americans are alcoholics or have alcohol problems. Alcoholism is a disease with four main features:: - Craving - a strong need to drink. - Loss of control - not being able to stop drinking once you've started. - Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating, or shakiness when you don't drink. - Tolerance - the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol to feel the same effect. Alcoholism carries many serious dangers. Heavy drinking can increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcoholism also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is help. Start by talking to your health care provider. Medicines, counseling, and support groups may help you to stop drinking. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  [from MedlinePlus]

Clinical features

Abnormality of the nervous system
MedGen UID:
428224
Concept ID:
CN000664
Finding
An abnormality of the nervous system.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews
  • CROGAlcohol dependence

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Zuo L, Lu L, Tan Y, Pan X, Cai Y, Wang X, Hong J, Zhong C, Wang F, Zhang XY, Vanderlinden LA, Tabakoff B, Luo X
Am J Addict 2014 Nov-Dec;23(6):526-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2014.12147.x. PMID: 25278008Free PMC Article
Nedic Erjavec G, Nenadic Sviglin K, Nikolac Perkovic M, Muck-Seler D, Jovanovic T, Pivac N
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2014 Oct 3;54:321-7. Epub 2014 Jul 15 doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.07.002. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25035107
van Holst RJ, Clark L, Veltman DJ, van den Brink W, Goudriaan AE
Drug Alcohol Depend 2014 Sep 1;142:204-8. Epub 2014 Jun 24 doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.06.019. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25012896
Cheah SY, Lawford BR, Young RM, Connor JP, Phillip Morris C, Voisey J
Alcohol Alcohol 2014 Sep-Oct;49(5):491-7. Epub 2014 Jul 3 doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agu040. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24993285
Gullo MJ, St John N, McD Young R, Saunders JB, Noble EP, Connor JP
Addict Behav 2014 Nov;39(11):1663-9. Epub 2014 Feb 15 doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.02.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24629326

Diagnosis

Esser MB, Hedden SL, Kanny D, Brewer RD, Gfroerer JC, Naimi TS
Prev Chronic Dis 2014 Nov 20;11:E206. doi: 10.5888/pcd11.140329. PMID: 25412029Free PMC Article
Kim JH, Park BL, Cheong HS, Bae JS, Kim LH, Kim JW, Lee BC, Seo CH, Kang TC, Park SH, Choi IG, Shin HD
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014 Sep;38(9):2354-61. Epub 2014 Jul 28 doi: 10.1111/acer.12482. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25070732
van Holst RJ, Clark L, Veltman DJ, van den Brink W, Goudriaan AE
Drug Alcohol Depend 2014 Sep 1;142:204-8. Epub 2014 Jun 24 doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.06.019. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25012896
Cheah SY, Lawford BR, Young RM, Connor JP, Phillip Morris C, Voisey J
Alcohol Alcohol 2014 Sep-Oct;49(5):491-7. Epub 2014 Jul 3 doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agu040. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24993285
Lechner WV, Shadur JM, Banducci AN, Grant DM, Morse M, Lejuez CW
Addict Behav 2014 Aug;39(8):1243-8. Epub 2014 Apr 13 doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.04.002. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24813550Free PMC Article

Therapy

Kim JH, Park BL, Cheong HS, Bae JS, Kim LH, Kim JW, Lee BC, Seo CH, Kang TC, Park SH, Choi IG, Shin HD
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014 Sep;38(9):2354-61. Epub 2014 Jul 28 doi: 10.1111/acer.12482. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25070732
Sherwood Brown E, Davila D, Nakamura A, Carmody TJ, Rush AJ, Lo A, Holmes T, Adinoff B, Caetano R, Swann AC, Sunderajan P, Bret ME
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014 Jul;38(7):2113-8. Epub 2014 Jun 27 doi: 10.1111/acer.12445. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24976394Free PMC Article
Hallgren M, Romberg K, Bakshi AS, Andréasson S
Complement Ther Med 2014 Jun;22(3):441-5. Epub 2014 Mar 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2014.03.003. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24906582
Yoshimura A, Kimura M, Nakayama H, Matsui T, Okudaira F, Akazawa S, Ohkawara M, Cho T, Kono Y, Hashimoto K, Kumagai M, Sahashi Y, Roh S, Higuchi S
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014 Feb;38(2):572-8. Epub 2013 Oct 11 doi: 10.1111/acer.12278. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24117666
Preuss UW, Wurst FM, Ridinger M, Rujescu D, Fehr C, Koller G, Bondy B, Wodarz N, Soyka M, Zill P
Drug Alcohol Depend 2013 Dec 1;133(2):459-67. Epub 2013 Jul 30 doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.07.002. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23906995

Prognosis

Schomerus G, Matschinger H, Angermeyer MC
Eur Addict Res 2014;20(6):293-9. Epub 2014 Oct 4 doi: 10.1159/000362407. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25300651
Potthast N, Neuner F, Catani C
Addict Behav 2014 May;39(5):949-58. Epub 2014 Feb 7 doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.01.015. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24561015
Levola J, Aalto M, Holopainen A, Cieza A, Pitkänen T
Nord J Psychiatry 2014 Aug;68(6):369-84. Epub 2013 Nov 15 doi: 10.3109/08039488.2013.852242. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24228776
Levola J, Kaskela T, Holopainen A, Sabariego C, Tourunen J, Cieza A, Pitkänen T
Disabil Rehabil 2014;36(15):1227-39. Epub 2013 Sep 30 doi: 10.3109/09638288.2013.837104. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24079366
Goodwin RD, Kim JH, Weinberger AH, Taha F, Galea S, Martins SS
Drug Alcohol Depend 2013 Dec 1;133(2):718-23. Epub 2013 Sep 6 doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.08.026. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24183052Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Norden-Krichmar TM, Gizer IR, Wilhelmsen KC, Schork NJ, Ehlers CL
BMC Med Genet 2014 Dec 21;15:136. doi: 10.1186/s12881-014-0136-z. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25527893Free PMC Article
Leclercq S, Matamoros S, Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Jamar F, Stärkel P, Windey K, Tremaroli V, Bäckhed F, Verbeke K, de Timary P, Delzenne NM
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Oct 21;111(42):E4485-93. Epub 2014 Oct 6 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1415174111. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25288760Free PMC Article
Kim JH, Park BL, Cheong HS, Bae JS, Kim LH, Kim JW, Lee BC, Seo CH, Kang TC, Park SH, Choi IG, Shin HD
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014 Sep;38(9):2354-61. Epub 2014 Jul 28 doi: 10.1111/acer.12482. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25070732
Lechner WV, Shadur JM, Banducci AN, Grant DM, Morse M, Lejuez CW
Addict Behav 2014 Aug;39(8):1243-8. Epub 2014 Apr 13 doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.04.002. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24813550Free PMC Article
Goodwin RD, Kim JH, Weinberger AH, Taha F, Galea S, Martins SS
Drug Alcohol Depend 2013 Dec 1;133(2):718-23. Epub 2013 Sep 6 doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.08.026. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24183052Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Zuo L, Lu L, Tan Y, Pan X, Cai Y, Wang X, Hong J, Zhong C, Wang F, Zhang XY, Vanderlinden LA, Tabakoff B, Luo X
Am J Addict 2014 Nov-Dec;23(6):526-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2014.12147.x. PMID: 25278008Free PMC Article
Levola J, Aalto M, Holopainen A, Cieza A, Pitkänen T
Nord J Psychiatry 2014 Aug;68(6):369-84. Epub 2013 Nov 15 doi: 10.3109/08039488.2013.852242. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24228776
Levola J, Kaskela T, Holopainen A, Sabariego C, Tourunen J, Cieza A, Pitkänen T
Disabil Rehabil 2014;36(15):1227-39. Epub 2013 Sep 30 doi: 10.3109/09638288.2013.837104. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24079366
Aubin HJ, Daeppen JB
Drug Alcohol Depend 2013 Nov 1;133(1):15-29. Epub 2013 Jun 6 doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.04.025. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23746430
Laramée P, Kusel J, Leonard S, Aubin HJ, François C, Daeppen JB
Alcohol Alcohol 2013 May-Jun;48(3):259-69. Epub 2013 Jan 30 doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agt004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23371284

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