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1.

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency, complementation group A

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is a rare condition characterized by brain dysfunction (encephalopathy) that worsens over time. Babies with this condition appear normal at birth, but within a week they have difficulty feeding and develop seizures that do not improve with treatment (intractable seizures). Brain abnormalities, including deterioration (atrophy) of brain tissue, lead to severe developmental delay; affected individuals usually do not learn to sit unassisted or to speak. A small percentage of affected individuals have an exaggerated startle reaction (hyperekplexia) to unexpected stimuli such as loud noises. Other features of molybdenum cofactor deficiency can include a small head size (microcephaly) and facial features that are described as "coarse."Tests reveal that affected individuals have high levels of chemicals called sulfite, S-sulfocysteine, xanthine, and hypoxanthine in the urine and low levels of a chemical called uric acid in the blood.Because of the serious health problems caused by molybdenum cofactor deficiency, affected individuals usually do not survive past early childhood.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
381530
Concept ID:
C1854988
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency, complementation group C

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is a rare condition characterized by brain dysfunction (encephalopathy) that worsens over time. Babies with this condition appear normal at birth, but within a week they have difficulty feeding and develop seizures that do not improve with treatment (intractable seizures). Brain abnormalities, including deterioration (atrophy) of brain tissue, lead to severe developmental delay; affected individuals usually do not learn to sit unassisted or to speak. A small percentage of affected individuals have an exaggerated startle reaction (hyperekplexia) to unexpected stimuli such as loud noises. Other features of molybdenum cofactor deficiency can include a small head size (microcephaly) and facial features that are described as "coarse."Tests reveal that affected individuals have high levels of chemicals called sulfite, S-sulfocysteine, xanthine, and hypoxanthine in the urine and low levels of a chemical called uric acid in the blood.Because of the serious health problems caused by molybdenum cofactor deficiency, affected individuals usually do not survive past early childhood.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
340761
Concept ID:
C1854990
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency, complementation group B

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by neonatal onset of intractable seizures, opisthotonus, and facial dysmorphism associated with hypouricemia and elevated urinary sulfite levels. Affected individuals show severe neurologic damage and often die in early childhood (summary by Reiss et al., 1999). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MOCOD, see MOCODA (252150), which is clinically indistinguishable from MOCODB. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
340760
Concept ID:
C1854989
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Combined molybdoflavoprotein enzyme deficiency

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MOCOD) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by onset in infancy of poor feeding, intractable seizures, and severe psychomotor retardation. Characteristic biochemical abnormalities include decreased serum uric acid and increased urine sulfite levels due to the combined enzymatic deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH; 607633) and sulfite oxidase (SUOX; 606887), both of which use molybdenum as a cofactor. Most affected individuals die in early childhood (summary by Reiss, 2000; Reiss et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency See also MOCOD, complementation group B (MOCODB; 252160), caused by mutation in the MOCS2 gene (602708) on chromosome 5q11; and MOCOD, complementation group C (MOCODC; 615501), caused by mutation in the GPHN gene (603930) on chromosome 14q24. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75652
Concept ID:
C0268119
Disease or Syndrome
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