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1.

Heart disease

If you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. It is also a major cause of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease and happens slowly over time. It's the major reason people have heart attacks. Other kinds of heart problems may happen to the valves in the heart, or the heart may not pump well and cause heart failure. Some people are born with heart disease. You can help reduce your risk of heart disease by taking steps to control factors that put you at greater risk:: - Control your blood pressure. - Lower your cholesterol. - Don't smoke. - Get enough exercise. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
5458
Concept ID:
C0018799
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Coronary heart disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. This is due to the buildup of cholesterol and other material, called plaque, on their inner walls. This buildup is called atherosclerosis. As it grows, less blood can flow through the arteries. As a result, the heart muscle can't get the blood or oxygen it needs. This can lead to chest pain (angina) or a heart attack. Most heart attacks happen when a blood clot suddenly cuts off the hearts' blood supply, causing permanent heart damage. . Over time, CAD can also weaken the heart muscle and contribute to heart failure and arrhythmias. Heart failure means the heart can't pump blood well to the rest of the body. Arrhythmias are changes in the normal beating rhythm of the heart. . NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
3624
Concept ID:
C0010068
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. That limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including: -Coronary artery disease. These arteries supply blood to your heart. When they are blocked, you can suffer angina or a heart attack. -Carotid artery disease. These arteries supply blood to your brain. When they are blocked you can suffer a stroke. -Peripheral arterial disease. These arteries are in your arms, legs and pelvis. When they are blocked, you can suffer from numbness, pain and sometimes infections. Atherosclerosis usually doesn't cause symptoms until it severely narrows or totally blocks an artery. Many people don't know they have it until they have a medical emergency. A physical exam, imaging, and other diagnostic tests can tell if you have it. Medicines can slow the progress of plaque buildup. Your doctor may also recommend procedures such as angioplasty to open the arteries, or surgery on the coronary or carotid arteries. Lifestyle changes can also help. These include following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, quitting smoking, and managing stress. . NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
13948
Concept ID:
C0004153
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Atherosclerosis

A condition characterized by patchy atheromas or atherosclerotic plaques which develop in the walls of medium-sized and large arteries and can lead to arterial stenosis with reduced or blocked blood flow. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505298
Concept ID:
CN002382
Finding
5.

Hypoalphalipoproteinemia

Conditions with abnormally low levels of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in the blood. Hypoalphalipoproteinemia can be associated with mutations in genes encoding APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I; LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE; and ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
96877
Concept ID:
C0473527
Finding
6.

Familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia

Twenty to 30% of early familial coronary heart disease (CHD) is ascribed to hypoalphalipoproteinemia, or high density lipoprotein deficiency. Although not initially recognized as a predisposing dyslipidemia, extensive epidemiologic work has implicated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels in increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and low HDLC is considered to be a true dyslipidemic syndrome (Warnick and Wood, 1995). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
352844
Concept ID:
C1704429
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Hypoprebetalipoproteinemia

A condition with abnormally low levels of PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
318569
Concept ID:
C1720772
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Genetic Diseases, Inborn

Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
181981
Concept ID:
C0950123
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Acquired Polyneuropathy

MedGen UID:
155861
Concept ID:
C0751449
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Polyneuropathy, Familial

MedGen UID:
155860
Concept ID:
C0751448
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Dyslipoproteinemias

MedGen UID:
108970
Concept ID:
C0598784
Pathologic Function
12.

Myocardial Ischemia

blood deficiency in the myocardium caused by a constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels; frequently occurs in conjunction with hypoxia, which is reduction in oxygen supply. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
101801
Concept ID:
C0151744
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Motor polyneuropathy

MedGen UID:
82885
Concept ID:
C0271683
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Dyslipidemia

Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
66067
Concept ID:
C0242339
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Disorder of lipid metabolism

An inherited metabolic disorder that affects the metabolism of the lipids. Representative examples include Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs disease, and Niemann-Pick disease. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
57587
Concept ID:
C0154251
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Polyneuropathy

a nerve disease where many peripheral nerves are affected [from CHV]

MedGen UID:
57502
Concept ID:
C0152025
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Tangier disease

Tangier disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by markedly reduced levels of plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) resulting in tissue accumulation of cholesterol esters. Clinical features include very large, yellow-orange tonsils, enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes, hypocholesterolemia, and abnormal chylomicron remnants (Brooks-Wilson et al., 1999). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
52644
Concept ID:
C0039292
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases

A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
45164
Concept ID:
C0028715
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Metabolic disease

Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body disrupt this process. When this happens, you might have too much of some substances or too little of other ones that you need to stay healthy. . You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function normally. Diabetes is an example. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
44376
Concept ID:
C0025517
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Vascular disorder

The vascular system is the body's network of blood vessels. It includes the arteries, veins and capillaries that carry blood to and from the heart. Problems of the vascular system are common and can be serious. Arteries can become thick and stiff, a problem called atherosclerosis. Blood clots can clog vessels and block blood flow to the heart or brain. Weakened blood vessels can burst, causing bleeding inside the body. . You are more likely to have vascular disease as you get older. Other factors that make vascular disease more likely include: - Family history of vascular or heart diseases. - Pregnancy. - Illness or injury . - Long periods of sitting or standing still. - Any condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol . - Smoking . - Obesity . Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
22621
Concept ID:
C0042373
Disease or Syndrome

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