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Items: 11

1.

HEMOGLOBIN S

An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
42399
Concept ID:
C0019043
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Biologically Active Substance
2.

Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia short limb-hand type

MedGen UID:
338595
Concept ID:
C1849011
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus 1

Classic hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by a substantial elevation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adult red blood cells. There are no other phenotypic or hematologic manifestations. Expression of the HBG1 and HBG2 genes, which encode the gamma isoforms of HbF, is normally suppressed shortly before birth and replaced by expression of the beta- (HBB; 141900) or delta- (HBD; 142000) chains, which form adult hemoglobin. Adults normally have less than 1% HbF, whereas heterozygotes for HPFH have 5 to 30% HbF. HPFH heterozygotes have essentially normal red cell indices and a rather homogeneous distribution of HbF among red cells, termed 'pancellular.' Homozygotes for HPFH can express HbF in up to 100% of red blood cells (Thein and Craig, 1998). Delta-beta thalassemia is a hemoglobin disorder characterized by decreased or absent synthesis of the delta- and beta-globin chains with a compensatory increase in expression of fetal gamma-chain synthesis from the affected chromosome. Individuals with delta-beta thalassemia have hypochromic, microcytic anemia and increased HbF, which may mitigate the anemia depending on the level of HbF. Delta-beta thalassemia and some forms of HPFH result from deletions within the beta-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11p15; this has been referred to as 'deletional' HPFH. HPFH can also result from point mutations in the promoter regions of the gamma globulin genes HBG1 and HBG2; this has been referred to as 'non-deletional' HPFH (Ottolenghi et al., 1982; Forget, 1998). Forget (1998) noted that HPFH and delta-beta thalassemia are not clearly distinct disorders, but rather show partially overlapping features that may defy classification. Higher expression of HbF is often termed 'pancellular,' whereas lower expression of HbF is often termed 'heterocellular,' although these represent a spectrum. Approximately 10% of the population has HPFH manifest as modest elevations of HbF (1 to 4%) present in a subset of red cells (about 4.5%) termed F cells. This is also sometimes referred to as 'heterocellular' HPFH, and is considered to be a multifactorial trait influenced by multiple genetic loci (Thein and Craig, 1998). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
333874
Concept ID:
C1841621
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
4.

Hb SS disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by intermittent vaso-occlusive events and chronic hemolytic anemia. Vaso-occlusive events result in tissue ischemia leading to acute and chronic pain as well as organ damage that can affect any organ in the body, including the bones, lungs, liver, kidneys, brain, eyes, and joints. Dactylitis (pain and/or swelling of the hands or feet) in infants and young children is often the earliest manifestation of sickle cell disease. In children the spleen can become engorged with blood cells in a “splenic sequestration.” The spleen is particularly subject to infarction and the majority of individuals with SCD are functionally asplenic in early childhood, increasing their risk for certain types of bacterial infections. Chronic hemolysis can result in varying degrees of anemia, jaundice, cholelithiasis, and delayed growth and sexual maturation. Individuals with the highest rates of hemolysis are predisposed to pulmonary artery hypertension, priapism, and leg ulcers but may be relatively protected from vaso-occlusive pain. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
287
Concept ID:
C0002895
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Inborn genetic diseases

Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
181981
Concept ID:
C0950123
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hemoglobinopathy

A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
42400
Concept ID:
C0019045
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Abnormality of blood and blood-forming tissues

Your blood is living tissue made up of liquid and solids. The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent your blood from doing its job. They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side effects of medicines, and a lack of certain nutrients in your diet. Types of blood disorders include. -Platelet disorders, excessive clotting, and bleeding problems, which affect how your blood clots. -Anemia, which happens when your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. -Cancers of the blood, such as leukemia and myeloma. -Eosinophilic disorders, which are problems with one type of white blood cell.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
5483
Concept ID:
C0018939
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Congenital hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
1919
Concept ID:
C0002881
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hemolytic anemia

A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
1916
Concept ID:
C0002878
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Anemia

If you have anemia, your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. The most common cause of anemia is not having enough iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that gives the red color to blood. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, and high rates of red blood cell destruction. Conditions that may lead to anemia include. -Heavy periods. -Pregnancy. -Ulcers. -Colon polyps or colon cancer. -Inherited disorders. -A diet that does not have enough iron, folic acid or vitamin B12. -Blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, or cancer. -Aplastic anemia, a condition that can be inherited or acquired. -G6PD deficiency, a metabolic disorder. Anemia can make you feel tired, cold, dizzy, and irritable. You may be short of breath or have a headache. Your doctor will diagnose anemia with a physical exam and blood tests. Treatment depends on the kind of anemia you have. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
1526
Concept ID:
C0002871
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Persistence of hemoglobin F

Hemoglobin F (HbF) contains two globin alpha chains and two globin gamma chains. It is the main form of hemoglobin in the fetus during the last seven months of intrauterine development and in the half year of postnatal life. In adults it normally makes up less than one percent of all hemoglobiin. This term refers to an increase in HbF above this limit. In beta thalassemia major, it may represent over 90 percent of all hemoglobin, and in beta thalassemia minor it may make up between 0.5 to 4 percent. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
68693
Concept ID:
C0239941
Finding
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