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Parathyroid adenoma

MedGen UID:
505395
Concept ID:
CN002620
Finding
Synonyms: Parathyroid adenomas
 
HPO: HP:0002897

Definition

A benign tumor of the parathyroid gland that can cause hyperparathyroidism. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1
MedGen UID:
9957
Concept ID:
C0025267
Neoplastic Process
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome includes varying combinations of more than 20 endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. Endocrine tumors become evident by overproduction of hormones by the tumor or by growth of the tumor itself. Parathyroid tumors are the main MEN1-associated endocrinopathy; onset in 90% of individuals is between ages 20 and 25 years with hypercalcemia evident by age 50 years; hypercalcemia causes lethargy, depression, confusion, anorexia, constipation, nausea, vomiting, diuresis, dehydration, hypercalciuria, kidney stones, increased bone resorption/fracture risk, hypertension, and shortened QT interval. Pituitary tumors include prolactinoma (the most common) which manifests as oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and galactorrhea in females and sexual dysfunction in males. Well-differentiated endocrine tumors of the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tract can manifest as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma); hypoglycemia (insulinoma); hyperglycemia, anorexia, glossitis, anemia, diarrhea, venous thrombosis, and skin rash (glucagonoma); and watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria syndrome (vasoactive intestinal peptide [VIP]-secreting tumor). Carcinoid tumors are non-hormone-secreting and can manifest as a large mass after age 50 years. Adrenocortical tumors can be associated with primary hypercortisolism or hyperaldosteronism. Non-endocrine tumors include facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, lipomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, and leiomyomas.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2a
MedGen UID:
9958
Concept ID:
C0025268
Neoplastic Process
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is classified into three subtypes: MEN 2A, FMTC (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma), and MEN 2B. All three subtypes involve high risk for development of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC); MEN 2A and MEN 2B have an increased risk for pheochromocytoma; MEN 2A has an increased risk for parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. Additional features in MEN 2B include mucosal neuromas of the lips and tongue, distinctive facies with enlarged lips, ganglioneuromatosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and an asthenic ‘marfanoid’ body habitus. MTC typically occurs in early childhood in MEN 2B, early adulthood in MEN 2A, and middle age in FMTC.
Neurofibromatosis, type 1
MedGen UID:
18013
Concept ID:
C0027831
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is characterized by multiple café-au-lait spots, axillary and inguinal freckling, multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, and iris Lisch nodules. Learning disabilities are present in at least 50% of individuals with NF1. Less common but potentially more serious manifestations include plexiform neurofibromas, optic nerve and other central nervous system gliomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, scoliosis, tibial dysplasia, and vasculopathy.
Hyperparathyroidism 2
MedGen UID:
310065
Concept ID:
C1704981
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of CDC73-related disorders includes the following phenotypes: Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT). Parathyroid carcinoma. Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) . Primary hyperparathyroidism, the main finding of HPT-JT syndrome, occurs in more than 70% of affected individuals; onset is typically in late adolescence or early adulthood. HPT-JT-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a single parathyroid adenoma. In approximately 10%-15% of cases, primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by parathyroid carcinoma. Ossifying fibromas of the mandible or maxilla, also known as cementifying fibromas and cemento-ossifying fibromas, occur in 30%-40% of individuals with HPT-JT syndrome. Although benign, these tumors are aggressive and continue to enlarge if not treated. Approximately 20% of individuals with HPT-JT syndrome have kidney lesions, most commonly cysts; renal hamartomas and (more rarely) Wilms tumor have also been reported. Benign and malignant uterine tumors appear to be common in women with HPT-JT syndrome.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Salido S, Gómez-Ramírez J, Bravo JM, Martín-Pérez E, Fernández-Díaz G, Múñoz de Nova JL, Auza J, Larrañaga E
Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2014 Oct;96(7):e8-10. doi: 10.1308/003588414X13946184900804. PMID: 25245714
Daliakopoulos SI, Chatzoulis G, Lampridis S, Pantelidou V, Zografos O, Ioannidis K, Sapranidis M, Ploumis A
J Cardiothorac Surg 2014 Mar 31;9:62. doi: 10.1186/1749-8090-9-62. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24685256Free PMC Article
Im HJ, Lee IK, Paeng JC, Lee KE, Cheon GJ, Kang KW, Chung JK, Lee DS
Nucl Med Commun 2014 Jun;35(6):649-54. doi: 10.1097/MNM.0000000000000102. PMID: 24614519
Kelly CW, Eng CY, Quraishi MS
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2014 Mar;271(3):555-60. Epub 2013 May 8 doi: 10.1007/s00405-013-2443-y. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23653305
Mohammadi A, Moloudi F, Ghasemi-rad M
AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013 Aug;201(2):W318-21. doi: 10.2214/AJR.12.9296. PMID: 23883247

Diagnosis

Salido S, Gómez-Ramírez J, Bravo JM, Martín-Pérez E, Fernández-Díaz G, Múñoz de Nova JL, Auza J, Larrañaga E
Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2014 Oct;96(7):e8-10. doi: 10.1308/003588414X13946184900804. PMID: 25245714
Daliakopoulos SI, Chatzoulis G, Lampridis S, Pantelidou V, Zografos O, Ioannidis K, Sapranidis M, Ploumis A
J Cardiothorac Surg 2014 Mar 31;9:62. doi: 10.1186/1749-8090-9-62. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24685256Free PMC Article
Im HJ, Lee IK, Paeng JC, Lee KE, Cheon GJ, Kang KW, Chung JK, Lee DS
Nucl Med Commun 2014 Jun;35(6):649-54. doi: 10.1097/MNM.0000000000000102. PMID: 24614519
Cunningham LC, Yu JG, Shilo K, Tang B, Nair L, Daniel VC, Old MO
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014 Apr;140(4):369-73. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2013.6780. PMID: 24557446
Caldarella C, Treglia G, Isgrò MA, Giordano A
Endocrine 2013 Feb;43(1):78-83. Epub 2012 Jul 18 doi: 10.1007/s12020-012-9746-4. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22801990

Therapy

Deé E, Loghin A, Nechifor-Boilă A, Neagoe R, Paşcanu I, Borda A
Rom J Morphol Embryol 2013;54(4):1121-4. PMID: 24399011
Jackson RS, May JT 4th, Norman J, Padhya TA
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 Nov;149(5):789-90. Epub 2013 Aug 6 doi: 10.1177/0194599813500013. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23921498
Guevara N, Agopian B, Benisvy D, Lassalle S, Santini J, Castillo L
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2013 Apr;130(2):95-8. Epub 2012 Sep 26 doi: 10.1016/j.anorl.2012.04.008. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23021000
Woll ML, Mazeh H, Anderson BM, Chen H, Sippel RS
World J Surg 2012 Mar;36(3):607-11. doi: 10.1007/s00268-011-1394-y. PMID: 22207495
Maxwell JH, Giroux L, Bunner J, Duvvuri U
Thyroid 2011 Jul;21(7):805-8. Epub 2011 May 26 doi: 10.1089/thy.2010.0200. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21615303

Prognosis

Salido S, Gómez-Ramírez J, Bravo JM, Martín-Pérez E, Fernández-Díaz G, Múñoz de Nova JL, Auza J, Larrañaga E
Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2014 Oct;96(7):e8-10. doi: 10.1308/003588414X13946184900804. PMID: 25245714
Cunningham LC, Yu JG, Shilo K, Tang B, Nair L, Daniel VC, Old MO
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014 Apr;140(4):369-73. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2013.6780. PMID: 24557446
Hunter GJ, Ginat DT, Kelly HR, Halpern EF, Hamberg LM
Radiology 2014 Jan;270(1):168-75. Epub 2013 Oct 28 doi: 10.1148/radiol.13122851. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24009349
Malm IJ, Olcott CM, Chan JY, Loyo M, Kim YJ
Am J Otolaryngol 2013 Sep-Oct;34(5):553-5. Epub 2013 May 1 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.03.017. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23993711
Adkisson CD, Koonce SL, Heckman MG, Thomas CS, Harris AS, Casler JD
Am J Otolaryngol 2013 Sep-Oct;34(5):508-16. Epub 2013 Jun 10 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.05.001. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23759694

Clinical prediction guides

Cunningham LC, Yu JG, Shilo K, Tang B, Nair L, Daniel VC, Old MO
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014 Apr;140(4):369-73. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2013.6780. PMID: 24557446
Hunter GJ, Ginat DT, Kelly HR, Halpern EF, Hamberg LM
Radiology 2014 Jan;270(1):168-75. Epub 2013 Oct 28 doi: 10.1148/radiol.13122851. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24009349
Malm IJ, Olcott CM, Chan JY, Loyo M, Kim YJ
Am J Otolaryngol 2013 Sep-Oct;34(5):553-5. Epub 2013 May 1 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.03.017. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23993711
Adkisson CD, Koonce SL, Heckman MG, Thomas CS, Harris AS, Casler JD
Am J Otolaryngol 2013 Sep-Oct;34(5):508-16. Epub 2013 Jun 10 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.05.001. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23759694
Uslu L, Calişkan A, Sağer S, Teksöz S, Halaç M
Clin Nucl Med 2013 Jun;38(6):456-8. doi: 10.1097/RLU.0b013e31828e96f7. PMID: 23603587

Recent systematic reviews

Kanotra SP, Kuriloff DB, Vyas PK
Laryngoscope 2014 Sep;124(9):2205-10. Epub 2014 Mar 11 doi: 10.1002/lary.24615. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24470308
Caldarella C, Treglia G, Isgrò MA, Giordano A
Endocrine 2013 Feb;43(1):78-83. Epub 2012 Jul 18 doi: 10.1007/s12020-012-9746-4. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22801990
Gurrado A, Piccinni G, Lissidini G, Di Fronzo P, Vittore F, Testini M
Endokrynol Pol 2012;63(6):494-502. PMID: 23339009
Harari A, Waring A, Fernandez-Ranvier G, Hwang J, Suh I, Mitmaker E, Shen W, Gosnell J, Duh QY, Clark O
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Dec;96(12):3679-86. Epub 2011 Sep 21 doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-1571. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21937626
Sidhu PS, Talat N, Patel P, Mulholland NJ, Schulte KM
Eur Radiol 2011 Sep;21(9):1865-73. Epub 2011 May 10 doi: 10.1007/s00330-011-2141-3. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21556910

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