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Endocarditis

MedGen UID:
4940
Concept ID:
C0014118
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Endocarditides
SNOMED CT: Endocarditis (56819008)
 
HPO: HP:0100584

Definition

Endocarditis, also called infective endocarditis (IE), is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. The most common type, bacterial endocarditis, occurs when germs enter your heart. These germs come through your bloodstream from another part of your body, often your mouth. Bacterial endocarditis can damage your heart valves. If untreated, it can be life-threatening. It is rare in healthy hearts. . Risk factors include having. -An abnormal or damaged heart valve . -An artificial heart valve . -Congenital heart defects. The signs and symptoms of IE can vary from person to person. They also can vary over time in the same person. Symptoms you might notice include fever, shortness of breath, fluid buildup in your arms or legs, tiny red spots on your skin, and weight loss. Your doctor will diagnose IE based on your risk factors, medical history, signs and symptoms, and lab and heart tests. Early treatment can help you avoid complications. Treatment usually involves high-dose antibiotics. If your heart valve is damaged, you may need surgery. If you're at risk for IE, brush and floss your teeth regularly, and have regular dental checkups. Germs from a gum infection can enter your bloodstream. If you are at high risk, your doctor might prescribe antibiotics before dental work and certain types of surgery. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Muñoz P, Kestler M, De Alarcon A, Miro JM, Bermejo J, Rodríguez-Abella H, Fariñas MC, Cobo Belaustegui M, Mestres C, Llinares P, Goenaga M, Navas E, Oteo JA, Tarabini P, Bouza E; Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis-Grupo de Apoyo al Manejo de la Endocarditis Infecciosa en España (GAMES)
Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Oct;94(43):e1816. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001816. PMID: 26512582
Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, Fowler VG Jr, Tleyjeh IM, Rybak MJ, Barsic B, Lockhart PB, Gewitz MH, Levison ME, Bolger AF, Steckelberg JM, Baltimore RS, Fink AM, O'Gara P, Taubert KA; American Heart Association Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and Stroke Council
Circulation 2015 Oct 13;132(15):1435-86. Epub 2015 Sep 15 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000296. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26373316
San Román JA, Vilacosta I, López J, Sarriá C
J Am Coll Cardiol 2015 Sep 1;66(9):1068-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.016. PMID: 26314535
Pizzi MN, Roque A, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Cuéllar-Calabria H, Ferreira-González I, Gonzàlez-Alujas MT, Oristrell G, Gracia-Sánchez L, González JJ, Rodríguez-Palomares J, Galiñanes M, Maisterra-Santos O, Garcia-Dorado D, Castell-Conesa J, Almirante B, Aguadé-Bruix S, Tornos P
Circulation 2015 Sep 22;132(12):1113-26. Epub 2015 Aug 14 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.015316. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26276890
Chu VH, Park LP, Athan E, Delahaye F, Freiberger T, Lamas C, Miro JM, Mudrick DW, Strahilevitz J, Tribouilloy C, Durante-Mangoni E, Pericas JM, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Nacinovich F, Rizk H, Krajinovic V, Giannitsioti E, Hurley JP, Hannan MM, Wang A; International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) Investigators*
Circulation 2015 Jan 13;131(2):131-40. Epub 2014 Dec 5 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012461. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25480814

Diagnosis

Cahill TJ, Prendergast BD
Lancet 2016 Feb 27;387(10021):882-93. Epub 2015 Sep 1 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00067-7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26341945
Baltimore RS, Gewitz M, Baddour LM, Beerman LB, Jackson MA, Lockhart PB, Pahl E, Schutze GE, Shulman ST, Willoughby R Jr; American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and the Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing
Circulation 2015 Oct 13;132(15):1487-515. Epub 2015 Sep 15 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000298. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26373317
Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, Fowler VG Jr, Tleyjeh IM, Rybak MJ, Barsic B, Lockhart PB, Gewitz MH, Levison ME, Bolger AF, Steckelberg JM, Baltimore RS, Fink AM, O'Gara P, Taubert KA; American Heart Association Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and Stroke Council
Circulation 2015 Oct 13;132(15):1435-86. Epub 2015 Sep 15 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000296. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26373316
Pizzi MN, Roque A, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Cuéllar-Calabria H, Ferreira-González I, Gonzàlez-Alujas MT, Oristrell G, Gracia-Sánchez L, González JJ, Rodríguez-Palomares J, Galiñanes M, Maisterra-Santos O, Garcia-Dorado D, Castell-Conesa J, Almirante B, Aguadé-Bruix S, Tornos P
Circulation 2015 Sep 22;132(12):1113-26. Epub 2015 Aug 14 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.015316. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26276890
El-Kholy AA, El-Rachidi NG, El-Enany MG, AbdulRahman EM, Mohamed RM, Rizk HH
Infection 2015 Oct;43(5):523-9. Epub 2015 Mar 26 doi: 10.1007/s15010-015-0761-2. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25808262

Therapy

Cahill TJ, Prendergast BD
Lancet 2016 Feb 27;387(10021):882-93. Epub 2015 Sep 1 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00067-7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26341945
Baltimore RS, Gewitz M, Baddour LM, Beerman LB, Jackson MA, Lockhart PB, Pahl E, Schutze GE, Shulman ST, Willoughby R Jr; American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and the Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing
Circulation 2015 Oct 13;132(15):1487-515. Epub 2015 Sep 15 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000298. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26373317
Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, Fowler VG Jr, Tleyjeh IM, Rybak MJ, Barsic B, Lockhart PB, Gewitz MH, Levison ME, Bolger AF, Steckelberg JM, Baltimore RS, Fink AM, O'Gara P, Taubert KA; American Heart Association Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and Stroke Council
Circulation 2015 Oct 13;132(15):1435-86. Epub 2015 Sep 15 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000296. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26373316
Elder RW, Baltimore RS
Infect Dis Clin North Am 2015 Sep;29(3):513-24. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2015.05.004. PMID: 26311357
O'Connor CT, Kiernan TJ
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2015 May;13(5):501-10. Epub 2015 Apr 12 doi: 10.1586/14779072.2015.1035648. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25865118

Prognosis

Cahill TJ, Prendergast BD
Lancet 2016 Feb 27;387(10021):882-93. Epub 2015 Sep 1 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00067-7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26341945
San Román JA, Vilacosta I, López J, Sarriá C
J Am Coll Cardiol 2015 Sep 1;66(9):1068-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.016. PMID: 26314535
Pizzi MN, Roque A, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Cuéllar-Calabria H, Ferreira-González I, Gonzàlez-Alujas MT, Oristrell G, Gracia-Sánchez L, González JJ, Rodríguez-Palomares J, Galiñanes M, Maisterra-Santos O, Garcia-Dorado D, Castell-Conesa J, Almirante B, Aguadé-Bruix S, Tornos P
Circulation 2015 Sep 22;132(12):1113-26. Epub 2015 Aug 14 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.015316. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26276890
Arnold CJ, Johnson M, Bayer AS, Bradley S, Giannitsioti E, Miró JM, Tornos P, Tattevin P, Strahilevitz J, Spelman D, Athan E, Nacinovich F, Fortes CQ, Lamas C, Barsic B, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Muñoz P, Chu VH
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Apr;59(4):2365-73. Epub 2015 Feb 2 doi: 10.1128/AAC.04867-14. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25645855Free PMC Article
Chu VH, Park LP, Athan E, Delahaye F, Freiberger T, Lamas C, Miro JM, Mudrick DW, Strahilevitz J, Tribouilloy C, Durante-Mangoni E, Pericas JM, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Nacinovich F, Rizk H, Krajinovic V, Giannitsioti E, Hurley JP, Hannan MM, Wang A; International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) Investigators*
Circulation 2015 Jan 13;131(2):131-40. Epub 2014 Dec 5 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012461. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25480814

Clinical prediction guides

San Román JA, Vilacosta I, López J, Sarriá C
J Am Coll Cardiol 2015 Sep 1;66(9):1068-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.016. PMID: 26314535
Pizzi MN, Roque A, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Cuéllar-Calabria H, Ferreira-González I, Gonzàlez-Alujas MT, Oristrell G, Gracia-Sánchez L, González JJ, Rodríguez-Palomares J, Galiñanes M, Maisterra-Santos O, Garcia-Dorado D, Castell-Conesa J, Almirante B, Aguadé-Bruix S, Tornos P
Circulation 2015 Sep 22;132(12):1113-26. Epub 2015 Aug 14 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.015316. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26276890
Arnold CJ, Johnson M, Bayer AS, Bradley S, Giannitsioti E, Miró JM, Tornos P, Tattevin P, Strahilevitz J, Spelman D, Athan E, Nacinovich F, Fortes CQ, Lamas C, Barsic B, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Muñoz P, Chu VH
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Apr;59(4):2365-73. Epub 2015 Feb 2 doi: 10.1128/AAC.04867-14. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25645855Free PMC Article
Tung MK, Light M, Giri R, Lane S, Appelbe A, Harvey C, Athan E
Drug Alcohol Rev 2015 Jul;34(4):412-7. Epub 2014 Dec 29 doi: 10.1111/dar.12228. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25545735
Chu VH, Park LP, Athan E, Delahaye F, Freiberger T, Lamas C, Miro JM, Mudrick DW, Strahilevitz J, Tribouilloy C, Durante-Mangoni E, Pericas JM, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Nacinovich F, Rizk H, Krajinovic V, Giannitsioti E, Hurley JP, Hannan MM, Wang A; International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) Investigators*
Circulation 2015 Jan 13;131(2):131-40. Epub 2014 Dec 5 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012461. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25480814

Recent systematic reviews

Baltimore RS, Gewitz M, Baddour LM, Beerman LB, Jackson MA, Lockhart PB, Pahl E, Schutze GE, Shulman ST, Willoughby R Jr; American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and the Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing
Circulation 2015 Oct 13;132(15):1487-515. Epub 2015 Sep 15 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000298. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26373317
Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, Fowler VG Jr, Tleyjeh IM, Rybak MJ, Barsic B, Lockhart PB, Gewitz MH, Levison ME, Bolger AF, Steckelberg JM, Baltimore RS, Fink AM, O'Gara P, Taubert KA; American Heart Association Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and Stroke Council
Circulation 2015 Oct 13;132(15):1435-86. Epub 2015 Sep 15 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000296. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26373316
San Román JA, Vilacosta I, López J, Sarriá C
J Am Coll Cardiol 2015 Sep 1;66(9):1068-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.016. PMID: 26314535
Habets J, Tanis W, Reitsma JB, van den Brink RB, Mali WP, Chamuleau SA, Budde RP
Eur Radiol 2015 Jul;25(7):2125-33. Epub 2015 Feb 14 doi: 10.1007/s00330-015-3605-7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25680715Free PMC Article
Zhao D, Zhang B
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2014 Dec;19(6):1036-9. Epub 2014 Sep 3 doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivu296. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25185570

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