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Dementia

MedGen UID:
504574
Concept ID:
CN000683
Finding
Synonyms: Dementia, progressive
 
HPO: HP:0000726

Definition

A loss of global cognitive ability of sufficient amount to interfere with normal social or occupational function. Dementia represents a loss of previously present cognitive abilities, generally in adults, and can affect memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Alzheimer's disease
MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by dementia that typically begins with subtle and poorly recognized failure of memory and slowly becomes more severe and, eventually, incapacitating. Other common findings include confusion, poor judgment, language disturbance, agitation, withdrawal, and hallucinations. Occasionally, seizures, Parkinsonian features, increased muscle tone, myoclonus, incontinence, and mutism occur. Death usually results from general inanition, malnutrition, and pneumonia. The typical clinical duration of the disease is eight to ten years, with a range from one to 25 years. Approximately 25% of all AD is familial (i.e., =2 persons in a family have AD) of which approximately 95% is late onset (age >60-65 years) and 5% is early onset (age <65 years).
Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4886
Concept ID:
C0017495
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion diseases generally manifest with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) represent the core phenotypes of genetic prion disease. Note: A fourth clinical phenotype, known as Huntington disease like-1 (HDL-1) has been proposed, but this is based on a single report, and the underlying pathologic features would categorize it as GSS. Although it is clear that these four subtypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset ranges from the third to ninth decade of life. The course ranges from a few months to several years (typically 5-7 years; in rare instances, >10 years).
Pigmentary pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
6708
Concept ID:
C0018523
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, or NBIA (formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome). PKAN is characterized by progressive dystonia and basal ganglia iron deposition with onset that usually occurs before age ten years. Commonly associated features include dysarthria, rigidity, and pigmentary retinopathy. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have an 'atypical' presentation with later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Wilson's disease
MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to over 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body.
Huntington's chorea
MedGen UID:
5654
Concept ID:
C0020179
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive disorder of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances. The mean age of onset is 35 to 44 years and the median survival time is 15 to 18 years after onset.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
42526
Concept ID:
C0020258
Disease or Syndrome
A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)
Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease
MedGen UID:
7179
Concept ID:
C0022336
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion diseases generally manifest with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) represent the core phenotypes of genetic prion disease. Note: A fourth clinical phenotype, known as Huntington disease like-1 (HDL-1) has been proposed, but this is based on a single report, and the underlying pathologic features would categorize it as GSS. Although it is clear that these four subtypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset ranges from the third to ninth decade of life. The course ranges from a few months to several years (typically 5-7 years; in rare instances, >10 years).
Kearns Sayre syndrome
MedGen UID:
9618
Concept ID:
C0022541
Disease or Syndrome
A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive EXTERNAL OPHTHALMOPLEGIA, cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHIES) with conduction block (HEART BLOCK), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p984)
Adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
MedGen UID:
7230
Concept ID:
C0022797
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of inherited, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorders characterized by progressive intellectual and motor deterioration, seizures, and early death. Visual gvhmloss is a feature of most forms. Clinical phenotypes have been characterized traditionally according to the age of onset and order of appearance of clinical features into infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adult, and Northern epilepsy (also known as progressive epilepsy with mental retardation [EPMR]). There is however genetic and allelic heterogeneity; a proposed new nomenclature and classification system has been developed to take into account both the responsible gene and the age at disease onset; for example, CLN1 disease, infantile onset and CLN1 disease, juvenile onset are both caused by mutations in PPT1 but with differing age of onset. The most prevalent NCLs are CLN3 disease, classic juvenile and CLN2 disease, classic late infantile (although prevalence varies by ethnicity and country of family origin): CLN2 disease, classic late infantile. The first symptoms typically appear between age two and four years, usually starting with epilepsy, followed by regression of developmental milestones, myoclonic ataxia, and pyramidal signs. Visual impairment typically appears at age four to six years and rapidly progresses to light /dark awareness only. Life expectancy ranges from age six years to early teenage. CLN3 disease, classic juvenile. Onset is usually between ages four and ten years. Rapidly progressing visual loss resulting in severe visual impairment within one to two years is often the first clinical sign. Epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or complex-partial seizures typically appears around age ten years. Life expectancy ranges from the late teens to the 30s. Other forms of NCL may present with behavior changes, epilepsy, visual impairment, or slowing of developmental progress and then loss of skills. The course may be extremely variable. Some genotype-phenotype information is available.
Azorean disease
MedGen UID:
9841
Concept ID:
C0024408
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and variable findings including a dystonic-rigid syndrome, a parkinsonian syndrome, or a combined syndrome of dystonia and peripheral neuropathy. Neurologic findings tend to evolve as the disease progresses.
Tay-Sachs disease
MedGen UID:
11713
Concept ID:
C0039373
Disease or Syndrome
Hexosaminidase A deficiency results in a group of neurodegenerative disorders caused by intralysosomal storage of the specific glycosphingolipid, GM2 ganglioside. The prototype hexosaminidase A deficiency is Tay-Sachs disease, also known as the acute infantile variant. Tay-Sachs disease is characterized by progressive weakness, loss of motor skills, decreased attentiveness, and increased startle response beginning between ages three and six months with progressive evidence of neurodegeneration including: seizures, blindness, spasticity, eventual total incapacitation, and death, usually before age four years. The juvenile (subacute), chronic, and adult-onset variants of hexosaminidase A deficiency have later onsets, slower progression, and more variable neurologic findings, including: progressive dystonia, spinocerebellar degeneration, motor neuron disease, and, in some individuals with adult-onset disease, a bipolar form of psychosis.
Adrenoleukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
57667
Concept ID:
C0162309
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. Three main phenotypes are seen in affected males: The childhood cerebral form manifests most commonly between ages four and eight years. It initially resembles attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity; progressive impairment of cognition, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor function follow the initial symptoms and often lead to total disability within two years. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) manifests most commonly in the late twenties as progressive paraparesis, sphincter disturbances, sexual dysfunction, and often, impaired adrenocortical function; all symptoms are progressive over decades. "Addison disease only" presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency between age two years and adulthood and most commonly by age 7.5 years, without evidence of neurologic abnormality; however, some degree of neurologic disability (most commonly AMN) usually develops later. Approximately 20% of females who are carriers develop neurologic manifestations that resemble AMN but have later onset (age =35 years) and milder disease than do affected males.
Juvenile myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis AND stroke
MedGen UID:
56485
Concept ID:
C0162671
Disease or Syndrome
MELAS syndrome, comprising mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes, is a genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with a variable clinical phenotype. The disorder is accompanied by features of central nervous system involvement, including seizures, hemiparesis, hemianopsia, cortical blindness, and episodic vomiting (Pavlakis et al., 1984; Montagna et al., 1988). Other mitochondrial encephalomyopathies include Leigh syndrome (LS; 256000), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS; 530000), MERRF syndrome (545000), and Leber optic atrophy (535000).
Progressive sclerosing poliodystrophy
MedGen UID:
60012
Concept ID:
C0205710
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. These phenotypes exemplify the diversity that can result from mutation of a given gene. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life up to about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, Parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called “chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus,” or “CPEO+”).
Fatal familial insomnia
MedGen UID:
104768
Concept ID:
C0206042
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion diseases generally manifest with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) represent the core phenotypes of genetic prion disease. Note: A fourth clinical phenotype, known as Huntington disease like-1 (HDL-1) has been proposed, but this is based on a single report, and the underlying pathologic features would categorize it as GSS. Although it is clear that these four subtypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset ranges from the third to ninth decade of life. The course ranges from a few months to several years (typically 5-7 years; in rare instances, >10 years).
Cholestanol storage disease
MedGen UID:
116041
Concept ID:
C0238052
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disease characterized by infantile-onset diarrhea, childhood-onset cataract, adolescent- to young adult-onset tendon xanthomas, and adult-onset progressive neurologic dysfunction (dementia, psychiatric disturbances, pyramidal and/or cerebellar signs, dystonia, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures). Chronic diarrhea from infancy may be the earliest clinical manifestation. In approximately 75% of affected individuals, cataracts are the first finding, often appearing in the first decade of life. Xanthomas appear in the second or third decade; they occur on the Achilles tendon, the extensor tendons of the elbow and hand, the patellar tendon, and the neck tendons. Xanthomas have been reported in the lung, bones, and central nervous system. Some individuals show mental impairment from early infancy, whereas the majority have normal or only slightly subnormal intellectual function until puberty; dementia with slow deterioration in intellectual abilities occurs in the 20s in more than 50% of individuals. Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as behavioral changes, hallucinations, agitation, aggression, depression, and suicide attempts may be prominent. Pyramidal signs (i.e., spasticity) and/or cerebellar signs almost invariably become evident between ages 20 and 30 years.
Popliteal pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
78543
Concept ID:
C0265259
Congenital Abnormality
IRF6-related disorders span a spectrum from isolated cleft lip and palate and Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) at the mild end to popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) at the more severe end. Individuals with VWS show one or more of the following anomalies: Congenital, usually bilateral, paramedian lower-lip fistulae (pits) or sometimes small mounds with a sinus tract leading from a mucous gland of the lip. Cleft lip (CL). Cleft palate (CP)?Note: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) is observed about twice as often as CP only. Submucous cleft palate (SMCP). The PPS phenotype includes the following: CL±P . Fistulae of the lower lip . Webbing of the skin extending from the ischial tuberosities to the heels . In males: bifid scrotum and cryptorchidism. In females: hypoplasia of the labia majora. Syndactyly of fingers and/or toes . Anomalies of the skin around the nails. A characteristic pyramidal fold of skin overlying the nail of the hallux (almost pathognomonic) . In some non-classic forms of PPS: filiform synechiae connecting the upper and lower jaws (syngnathia) or the upper and lower eyelids (ankyloblepharon) . In both VWS and PPS, growth and intelligence are normal.
Atrophia bulborum hereditaria
MedGen UID:
75615
Concept ID:
C0266526
Congenital Abnormality
NDP-related retinopathies are characterized by a spectrum of fibrous and vascular changes of the retina at birth that progress through childhood or adolescence to cause varying degrees of visual impairment. The most severe phenotype is described as Norrie disease (ND), characterized by greyish yellow fibrovascular masses (pseudogliomas) secondary to retinal vascular dysgenesis and detachment. Congenital blindness is almost always present. Approximately 30%-50% of males with ND have developmental delay/intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, or psychotic-like features. The majority of males with ND develop sensorineural hearing loss. Less severe phenotypes include: persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), characterized by a fibrotic white stalk from the optic disk to the lens; X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (XL-FEVR), characterized by peripheral retinal vascular anomalies with or without fibrotic changes and retinal detachment; retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); and Coats disease, an exudative proliferative vasculopathy. Phenotypes can vary within families.
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group F
MedGen UID:
120612
Concept ID:
C0268140
Congenital Abnormality
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals, and marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age 2 years in most affected individuals); Ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); and Greatly increased risk of cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Subacute neuronopathic Gaucher's disease
MedGen UID:
78653
Concept ID:
C0268251
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Tay-Sachs disease, variant AB
MedGen UID:
78657
Concept ID:
C0268275
Disease or Syndrome
The GM2-gangliosidoses are a group of disorders caused by excessive accumulation of ganglioside GM2 and related glycolipids in the lysosomes, mainly of neuronal cells. GM2-gangliosidosis AB variant is characterized by normal hexosaminidase A (HEXA; 606869) and hexosaminidase B (HEXB; 606873) but the inability to form a functional GM2 activator complex. The clinical and biochemical phenotype of the AB variant is very similar to that of classic Tay-Sachs disease (see 272800) (Gravel et al., 2001).
Flynn-Aird syndrome
MedGen UID:
91009
Concept ID:
C0343108
Congenital Abnormality
Choreoacanthocytosis
MedGen UID:
98277
Concept ID:
C0393576
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is characterized by a progressive movement disorder, cognitive and behavior changes, a myopathy that can be subclinical, and chronic hyperCKemia in serum. Although the disorder is named for acanthocytosis of the red blood cells, this feature is variable. The movement disorder is mostly limb chorea, but some individuals present with parkinsonism. Dystonia is common and affects the oral region and especially the tongue, causing dysarthria and serious dysphagia with resultant weight loss. Habitual tongue and lip biting are characteristic, as well as tongue protrusion dystonia. Progressive cognitive and behavioral changes resemble those in a frontal lobe syndrome. Seizures are observed in almost half of affected individuals and can be the initial manifestation. Myopathy results in progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness. Mean age of onset in ChAc is about 30 years, although ChAc can develop as early as the first decade or as late as the seventh decade. It runs a chronic progressive course and may lead to major disability within a few years. Life expectancy is reduced, with age of death ranging from 28 to 61 years.
Kohlschutter's syndrome
MedGen UID:
98036
Concept ID:
C0406740
Congenital Abnormality
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, spasticity, and amelogenesis imperfecta affecting both primary and secondary teeth and causing yellow or brown discoloration of the teeth. Although the phenotype is consistent, there is variability. Intellectual disability is related to the severity of seizures, and the disorder can thus be considered an epileptic encephalopathy. Some infants show normal development until seizure onset, whereas others are delayed from birth. The most severely affected individuals have profound mental retardation, never acquire speech, and become bedridden early in life (summary by Schossig et al., 2012 and Mory et al., 2012).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex 1
MedGen UID:
107775
Concept ID:
C0543859
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex of Guam is a neurodengenerative disorder with unusually high incidence among the Chamorro people of Guam. Both ALS and parkinsonism-dementia are chronic, progressive, and uniformly fatal disorders in this population. Both diseases are known to occur in the same kindred, the same sibship, and even the same individual.
Cockayne syndrome type C
MedGen UID:
196713
Concept ID:
C0751037
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by short stature and an appearance of premature aging. Features of this disorder include a failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive), abnormally small head size (microcephaly), and impaired development of the nervous system. Affected individuals have an extreme sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity), and even a small amount of sun exposure can cause a sunburn. Other possible signs and symptoms include hearing loss, eye abnormalities, severe tooth decay, bone abnormalities, and changes in the brain that can be seen on brain scans. Cockayne syndrome can be divided into subtypes, which are distinguished by the severity and age of onset of symptoms. Classical, or type I, Cockayne syndrome is characterized by an onset of symptoms in early childhood (usually after age 1 year). Type II Cockayne syndrome has much more severe symptoms that are apparent at birth (congenital). Type II Cockayne syndrome is sometimes called cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II. Type III Cockayne syndrome has the mildest symptoms of the three types and appears later in childhood.
Cockayne syndrome type A
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or “moderate” form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome (COFS) or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II; CS type III, a milder form; Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS). CS type I (moderate CS) is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II (severe CS or early-onset CS) is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age seven years. CS type III (mild CS or late-onset CS) is characterized by essentially normal growth and cognitive development or by late onset. Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS) includes facial freckling and early skin cancers typical of XP and some features typical of CS, including intellectual disability, spasticity, short stature, and hypogonadism. XP-CS does not include skeletal involvement, the facial phenotype of CS, or CNS dysmyelination and calcifications.
Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
MedGen UID:
155549
Concept ID:
C0751383
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of inherited, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorders characterized by progressive intellectual and motor deterioration, seizures, and early death. Visual gvhmloss is a feature of most forms. Clinical phenotypes have been characterized traditionally according to the age of onset and order of appearance of clinical features into infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adult, and Northern epilepsy (also known as progressive epilepsy with mental retardation [EPMR]). There is however genetic and allelic heterogeneity; a proposed new nomenclature and classification system has been developed to take into account both the responsible gene and the age at disease onset; for example, CLN1 disease, infantile onset and CLN1 disease, juvenile onset are both caused by mutations in PPT1 but with differing age of onset. The most prevalent NCLs are CLN3 disease, classic juvenile and CLN2 disease, classic late infantile (although prevalence varies by ethnicity and country of family origin): CLN2 disease, classic late infantile. The first symptoms typically appear between age two and four years, usually starting with epilepsy, followed by regression of developmental milestones, myoclonic ataxia, and pyramidal signs. Visual impairment typically appears at age four to six years and rapidly progresses to light /dark awareness only. Life expectancy ranges from age six years to early teenage. CLN3 disease, classic juvenile. Onset is usually between ages four and ten years. Rapidly progressing visual loss resulting in severe visual impairment within one to two years is often the first clinical sign. Epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or complex-partial seizures typically appears around age ten years. Life expectancy ranges from the late teens to the 30s. Other forms of NCL may present with behavior changes, epilepsy, visual impairment, or slowing of developmental progress and then loss of skills. The course may be extremely variable. Some genotype-phenotype information is available.
Dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy
MedGen UID:
155630
Concept ID:
C0751781
Disease or Syndrome
Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a progressive disorder of ataxia, choreoathetosis, and dementia or character changes in adults and ataxia, myoclonus, epilepsy, and progressive intellectual deterioration in children. The age of onset is from one to 62 years with a mean age of onset of 30 years. The clinical presentation varies depending on the age of onset. The cardinal features in adults are ataxia, choreoathetosis, and dementia. Cardinal features in children are progressive intellectual deterioration, behavioral changes, myoclonus, and epilepsy.
Lafora disease
MedGen UID:
155631
Concept ID:
C0751783
Disease or Syndrome
Lafora disease (LD) is characterized by fragmentary, symmetric, or generalized myoclonus and/or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, visual hallucinations (occipital seizures), and progressive neurologic degeneration including cognitive and/or behavioral deterioration, dysarthria, and ataxia beginning in previously healthy adolescents between ages 12 and 17 years. The frequency and intractability of seizures increase over time. Status epilepticus is common. Emotional disturbance and confusion are common at or soon after onset of seizures and are followed by dementia. Dysarthria and ataxia appear early, spasticity late. Most affected individuals die within ten years of onset, usually from status epilepticus or from complications related to nervous system degeneration.
Spinocerebellar ataxia 2
MedGen UID:
155704
Concept ID:
C0752121
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, including nystagmus, slow saccadic eye movements and, in some individuals, ophthalmoparesis or parkinsonism. Pyramidal findings are present; deep tendon reflexes are brisk early on and are absent later in the course. Age of onset is typically in the fourth decade with a ten- to 15-year disease duration.
Lewy body dementia
MedGen UID:
199874
Concept ID:
C0752347
Disease or Syndrome
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by dementia and parkinsonism, often with fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Pathologically, Lewy bodies are present in a pattern more widespread than usually observed in Parkinson disease (see PD; 168600). Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300)-associated pathology and spongiform changes may also be seen (McKeith et al., 1996; Mizutani, 2000; McKeith et al., 2005).
Parkinsonism, early onset with mental retardation
MedGen UID:
208674
Concept ID:
C0796195
Disease or Syndrome
Waisman syndrome is an X-linked recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and early-onset Parkinson disease (summary by Wilson et al., 2014).
Deficiency of ferroxidase
MedGen UID:
168057
Concept ID:
C0878682
Disease or Syndrome
Aceruloplasminemia is characterized by iron accumulation in the brain and viscera. The clinical triad of retinal degeneration, diabetes mellitus (DM), and neurologic disease is seen in individuals ranging from age 25 years to older than 60 years. The neurologic findings of movement disorder (blepharospasm, grimacing, facial and neck dystonia, tremors, chorea) and ataxia (gait ataxia, dysarthria) correspond to regions of iron deposition in the brain. Individuals with aceruloplasminemia often present with anemia prior to onset of DM or obvious neurologic problems. Psychiatric disturbance includes depression and cognitive dysfunction in individuals older than age 50 years.
Megaloblastic anemia due to inborn errors of metabolism
MedGen UID:
224934
Concept ID:
C1306856
Disease or Syndrome
Type I MGCA is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. The metabolic landmark is urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGA) and its derivatives 3-methylglutaric acid (3-MG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA). Two main presentations have been described: 1 with onset in childhood associated with the nonspecific finding of psychomotor retardation, and the other with onset in adulthood of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes dementia; these patients develop white matter lesions in the brain. However, some asymptomatic pediatric patients have been identified by newborn screening and show no developmental abnormalities when reexamined later in childhood (summary by Wortmann et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity and Classification of Methylglutaconic Aciduria Methylglutaconic aciduria is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Type II MGCA, also known as Barth syndrome (BTHS; 302060), is caused by mutation in the tafazzin gene (TAZ; 300394) on chromosome Xq28. It is characterized by mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, short stature, skeletal myopathy, and recurrent infections; cognitive development is normal. Type III MGCA (258501), caused by mutation in the OPA3 gene (606580) on chromosome 19q13.2-q13.3, occurs in Iraqi Jews and involves optic atrophy, movement disorder, and spastic paraplegia. In types II and III, the elevations of 3-methylglutaconate and 3-methylglutarate in urine are modest. Type IV MGCA (250951) represents an unclassified group of patients who have severe psychomotor retardation and cerebellar dysgenesis. Type V MGCA (610198), caused by mutation in the DNAJC19 gene (608977) on chromosome 3q26, is characterized by early-onset dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction defects, nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia, testicular dysgenesis, and growth failure in addition to 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (Chitayat et al., 1992; Davey et al., 2006). Type VI MGCA (614739) is caused by mutation in the SERAC1 gene (614725) on chromosome 6q25. Type VII MGCA (616271) is caused by mutation in the CLPB gene (616254) on chromosome 11q13. Eriguchi et al. (2006) noted that type I MGCA is very rare, with only 13 patients reported in the literature as of 2003.
Hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Icelandic type
MedGen UID:
279656
Concept ID:
C1527338
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), defined by the deposition of congophilic material in the vessels of the cortex and leptomeninges, is a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly (Vinters, 1987, Greenberg, 1998). Palsdottir et al. (1988) referred to the disorder in Icelandic patients as hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA).
Olivopontocerebellar atrophy v
MedGen UID:
319015
Concept ID:
C1833995
Disease or Syndrome
Ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal 4B autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
320287
Concept ID:
C1834207
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of inherited, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorders characterized by progressive intellectual and motor deterioration, seizures, and early death. Visual gvhmloss is a feature of most forms. Clinical phenotypes have been characterized traditionally according to the age of onset and order of appearance of clinical features into infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adult, and Northern epilepsy (also known as progressive epilepsy with mental retardation [EPMR]). There is however genetic and allelic heterogeneity; a proposed new nomenclature and classification system has been developed to take into account both the responsible gene and the age at disease onset; for example, CLN1 disease, infantile onset and CLN1 disease, juvenile onset are both caused by mutations in PPT1 but with differing age of onset. The most prevalent NCLs are CLN3 disease, classic juvenile and CLN2 disease, classic late infantile (although prevalence varies by ethnicity and country of family origin): CLN2 disease, classic late infantile. The first symptoms typically appear between age two and four years, usually starting with epilepsy, followed by regression of developmental milestones, myoclonic ataxia, and pyramidal signs. Visual impairment typically appears at age four to six years and rapidly progresses to light /dark awareness only. Life expectancy ranges from age six years to early teenage. CLN3 disease, classic juvenile. Onset is usually between ages four and ten years. Rapidly progressing visual loss resulting in severe visual impairment within one to two years is often the first clinical sign. Epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or complex-partial seizures typically appears around age ten years. Life expectancy ranges from the late teens to the 30s. Other forms of NCL may present with behavior changes, epilepsy, visual impairment, or slowing of developmental progress and then loss of skills. The course may be extremely variable. Some genotype-phenotype information is available.
Jankovic Rivera syndrome
MedGen UID:
371854
Concept ID:
C1834569
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by childhood onset of proximal muscle weakness and generalized muscular atrophy due to degeneration of spinal motor neurons, followed by the onset of myoclonic seizures. The disorder is progressive, and usually results in loss of ambulation and early death from respiratory insufficiency (summary by Zhou et al., 2012).
Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 3
MedGen UID:
373087
Concept ID:
C1836439
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Patients with C10ORF2-linked adPEO may have other clinical features including proximal muscle weakness, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, cataracts, depression, and endocrine abnormalities (summary by Fratter et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640). PEO caused by mutations in the POLG gene are associated with more complicated phenotypes than those forms caused by mutations in the SLC25A4 (103220) or C10ORF2 genes (Lamantea et al., 2002).
Motor neuron disease with dementia and ophthalmoplegia
MedGen UID:
324986
Concept ID:
C1838253
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
325051
Concept ID:
C1838577
Disease or Syndrome
CARASIL (cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is characterized by early-onset changes in the deep white matter of the brain observed on MRI and associated neurologic findings. The most frequent initial symptom is gait disturbance from spasticity beginning between ages 20 and 30 years. Twenty-three percent of affected individuals have stroke-like episodes before age 40 years. Mood changes (apathy and irritability), pseudobulbar palsy, and cognitive dysfunction begin between ages 20 and 50 years. The disease progresses slowly over the five to 20 years following the onset of neurologic symptoms. Scalp alopecia before age 30 years and acute mid- to lower-back pain (lumbago) with onset between ages ten and 40 years are characteristic.
Neuropathy ataxia retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
325131
Concept ID:
C1838914
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial diseases are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that arise as a result of dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They can be caused by mutation of genes encoded by either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). While some mitochondrial disorders only affect a single organ (e.g., the eye in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy [LHON]), many involve multiple organ systems and often present with prominent neurologic and myopathic features. Mitochondrial disorders may present at any age. Many individuals with a mutation of mtDNA display a cluster of clinical features that fall into a discrete clinical syndrome, such as the Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), neurogenic weakness with ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), or Leigh syndrome (LS). However, considerable clinical variability exists and many individuals do not fit neatly into one particular category, which is well-illustrated by the overlapping spectrum of disease phenotypes (including mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) resulting from mutation of the nuclear gene POLG, which has emerged as a major cause of mitochondrial disease. Common clinical features of mitochondrial disease – whether involving a mitochondrial or nuclear gene – include ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, proximal myopathy and exercise intolerance, cardiomyopathy, sensorineural deafness, optic atrophy, pigmentary retinopathy, and diabetes mellitus. Common central nervous system findings are fluctuating encephalopathy, seizures, dementia, migraine, stroke-like episodes, ataxia, and spasticity. A high incidence of mid- and late pregnancy loss is a common occurrence that often goes unrecognized.
Alzheimer disease, susceptibility to, mitochondrial
MedGen UID:
325148
Concept ID:
C1838990
Finding
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy with dystonia
MedGen UID:
333240
Concept ID:
C1839040
Disease or Syndrome
Jensen syndrome
MedGen UID:
326913
Concept ID:
C1839564
Disease or Syndrome
Males with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy (DDON) syndrome have prelingual or postlingual sensorineural hearing impairment in early childhood, slowly progressive dystonia or ataxia in the teens, slowly progressive decreased visual acuity from optic atrophy beginning approximately age 20 years, and dementia beginning at approximately age 40 years. Psychiatric symptoms such as personality change and paranoia may appear in childhood and progress. The hearing impairment appears to be consistent in age of onset and progression, whereas the neurologic, visual, and neuropsychiatric signs vary in degree of severity and rate of progression. Females may have mild hearing impairment and focal dystonia.
Fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1-related disorders include fragile X syndrome, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function mutation and is nearly always characterized by moderate intellectual disability in affected males and mild intellectual disability in affected females. Because FMR1 mutations are complex alterations involving non-classic gene-disrupting alterations (trinucleotide repeat expansion) and abnormal gene methylation, affected individuals occasionally have an atypical presentation with an IQ above 70, the traditional demarcation denoting intellectual disability (previously referred to as mental retardation). Males with an FMR1 full mutation accompanied by aberrant methylation may have a characteristic appearance (large head, long face, prominent forehead and chin, protruding ears), connective tissue findings (joint laxity), and large testes after puberty. Behavioral abnormalities, sometimes including autism spectrum disorder, are common. FXTAS occurs in males (and some females) who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor. FMR1-related POI (age at cessation of menses <40 years) occurs in approximately 20% of females who have an FMR1 premutation.
Alzheimer disease, type 3
MedGen UID:
334304
Concept ID:
C1843013
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by adult-onset progressive dementia associated with cerebral cortical atrophy, beta-amyloid plaque formation, and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. AD typically begins with subtle memory failure that becomes more severe and is eventually incapacitating. Other common findings include confusion, poor judgment, language disturbance, agitation, withdrawal, hallucinations, seizures, Parkinsonian features, increased muscle tone, myoclonus, incontinence, and mutism. Familial AD (FAD) characterizes families that have more than one member with AD and usually implies multiple affected persons in more than one generation. Early-onset FAD (EOFAD) refers to families in which onset is consistently before age 60 to 65 years and often before age 55 years.
Cataract, congenital, with mental impairment and dentate gyrus atrophy
MedGen UID:
334365
Concept ID:
C1843257
Disease or Syndrome
Niemann-Pick disease type C2
MedGen UID:
335942
Concept ID:
C1843366
Disease or Syndrome
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a lipid storage disease that can present in infants, children, or adults. Neonates can present with ascites and severe liver disease from infiltration of the liver and/or respiratory failure from infiltration of the lungs. Other infants, without liver or pulmonary disease, have hypotonia and developmental delay. The classic presentation occurs in mid-to-late childhood with the insidious onset of ataxia, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy (VSGP), and dementia. Dystonia and seizures are common. Dysarthria and dysphagia eventually become disabling, making oral feeding impossible; death usually occurs in the late second or third decade from aspiration pneumonia. Adults are more likely to present with dementia or psychiatric symptoms.
Cerebral sclerosis, diffuse, scholz type
MedGen UID:
335049
Concept ID:
C1844884
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia X-linked type 4
MedGen UID:
337122
Concept ID:
C1844933
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia X-linked type 3
MedGen UID:
337124
Concept ID:
C1844936
Disease or Syndrome
A progressive disorder of the central nervous system characterized by ataxia, deafness, hypotonia, developmental delay, esotropia, and optic atrophy.
Hypoprebetalipoproteinemia, acanthocytosis, retinitis pigmentosa, and pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
337612
Concept ID:
C1846582
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, or NBIA (formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome). PKAN is characterized by progressive dystonia and basal ganglia iron deposition with onset that usually occurs before age ten years. Commonly associated features include dysarthria, rigidity, and pigmentary retinopathy. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have an 'atypical' presentation with later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Parkinson disease 8, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
339628
Concept ID:
C1846862
Disease or Syndrome
LRRK2-related Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by features consistent with idiopathic PD: initial motor features of slowly progressive asymmetric tremor at rest and/or bradykinesia, cog-wheel muscle rigidity, postural instability, and gait abnormalities that may include festination and freezing. Non-motor symptoms in LRRK2-related PD occur with similar frequency as observed in typical idiopathic PD. Onset is generally after age 50 years.
Alzheimer disease, type 4
MedGen UID:
376072
Concept ID:
C1847200
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by adult-onset progressive dementia associated with cerebral cortical atrophy, beta-amyloid plaque formation, and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. AD typically begins with subtle memory failure that becomes more severe and is eventually incapacitating. Other common findings include confusion, poor judgment, language disturbance, agitation, withdrawal, hallucinations, seizures, Parkinsonian features, increased muscle tone, myoclonus, incontinence, and mutism. Familial AD (FAD) characterizes families that have more than one member with AD and usually implies multiple affected persons in more than one generation. Early-onset FAD (EOFAD) refers to families in which onset is consistently before age 60 to 65 years and often before age 55 years.
Parkinson disease 9
MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen.
Spongiform encephalopathy with neuropsychiatric features
MedGen UID:
339812
Concept ID:
C1847650
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease-like 2
MedGen UID:
341120
Concept ID:
C1847987
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease-like 2 (HDL2) typically presents in midlife with a relentless progressive triad of movement, emotional, and cognitive abnormalities progressing to death over ten to 20 years. In some individuals the presentation resembles juvenile-onset Huntington disease (HD) or the Westphal variant of HD, usually presenting in the fourth decade (ages 29 to 41 years) with diminished coordination and weight loss despite increase in food intake. Neurologic abnormalities include parkinsonism (rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor), dysarthria, and hyperreflexia. In others the presentation is more variable but, in general, corresponds to typical HD.
Methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria
MedGen UID:
341256
Concept ID:
C1848561
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical manifestations of disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism can be highly variable even within a single complementation group. The prototype and best understood is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range, including: Newborns, who can have intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and microcephaly; Infants, who can have poor feeding, failure to thrive, pallor, and neurologic signs, and occasionally hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and/or seizures including infantile spasms; Toddlers, who can have failure to thrive, poor head growth, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures; and Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Parkinson-dementia syndrome
MedGen UID:
337962
Concept ID:
C1850076
Disease or Syndrome
Dementia/parkinsonism with non-alzheimer amyloid plaques
MedGen UID:
338883
Concept ID:
C1852223
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroferritinopathy
MedGen UID:
381211
Concept ID:
C1853578
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroferritinopathy typically presents with progressive adult-onset chorea or dystonia affecting one or two limbs, and subtle cognitive deficits. The movement disorder involves additional limbs within five to ten years and becomes more generalized within 20 years. When present, asymmetry remains throughout the course of the disorder. The majority of individuals develop a characteristic orofacial action-specific dystonia related to speech that leads to dysarthrophonia. Frontalis overactivity and orolingual dyskinesia are common. Cognitive deficits and behavioral issues become major problems with time.
Myopathy, distal, 2
MedGen UID:
342950
Concept ID:
C1853723
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-21 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Some patients may develop myopathic features or dementia (summary by Johnson et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Parkinson disease 6, autosomal recessive early-onset
MedGen UID:
342982
Concept ID:
C1853833
Disease or Syndrome
The PINK1 type of young-onset Parkinson disease is characterized by variable combinations of rigidity, bradykinesia, and rest tremor, often making it clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic Parkinson disease. Lower-limb dystonia may be a presenting sign. Onset usually occurs in the third or fourth decade. The disease is slowly progressive. Clinical signs vary; hyperreflexia may be present and abnormal behavior and/or psychiatric manifestations have been described. Dyskinesias as a result of treatment with levodopa frequently occur, as with all individuals with young-onset disease, regardless of the underlying genetic cause.
Parkinson disease 4
MedGen UID:
381361
Concept ID:
C1854182
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen.
Mast syndrome
MedGen UID:
343325
Concept ID:
C1855346
Disease or Syndrome
Mast syndrome is an autosomal recessive complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia in which progressive spastic paraparesis is associated in more advanced cases with cognitive decline, dementia, and other neurologic abnormalities. Symptom onset usually occurs in adulthood, and the disorder is progressive with variable severity. Brain imaging shows thinning of the corpus callosum. The disorder occurs with high frequency in the Old Order Amish (summary by Simpson et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Internal carotid arteries, hypoplasia of
MedGen UID:
383757
Concept ID:
C1855736
Anatomical Abnormality
Spinocerebellar ataxia 12
MedGen UID:
347653
Concept ID:
C1858501
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCA12) is characterized by onset of action tremor of the upper extremities in the fourth decade, slowly progressing to include ataxia and other cerebellar and cortical signs. Given the small number of individuals known to have SCA12, it is possible that other clinical manifestations have not yet been recognized.
Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies
MedGen UID:
346965
Concept ID:
C1858680
Disease or Syndrome
Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB) is a disorder that causes progressive dysfunction of the brain (encephalopathy). It is characterized by a loss of intellectual functioning (dementia) and seizures. At first, affected individuals may have difficulty sustaining attention and concentrating. They may experience repetitive thoughts, speech, or movements. As the condition progresses, their personality changes and judgment, insight, and memory become impaired. Affected people lose the ability to perform the activities of daily living, and most eventually require comprehensive care. The signs and symptoms of FENIB vary in their severity and age of onset. In severe cases, the condition causes seizures and episodes of sudden, involuntary muscle jerking or twitching (myoclonus) in addition to dementia. These signs can appear as early as a person's teens. Less severe cases are characterized by a progressive decline in intellectual functioning beginning in a person's forties or fifties.
Cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy
MedGen UID:
347726
Concept ID:
C1858804
Disease or Syndrome
ADCADN is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive cerebellar ataxia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, sensorineural deafness, and dementia. More variable features include optic atrophy, sensory neuropathy, psychosis, and depression (summary by Winkelmann et al., 2012).
Cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
349137
Concept ID:
C1859305
Disease or Syndrome
Gordon Holmes syndrome is an autosomal recessive adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline, dementia, and variable movement disorders, such as ataxia and chorea. The neurologic phenotype is associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Santens et al., 2015).
Ataxia with myoclonic epilepsy and presenile dementia
MedGen UID:
347924
Concept ID:
C1859646
Disease or Syndrome
Angiomatosis, diffuse corticomeningeal, of Divry and Van Bogaert
MedGen UID:
347234
Concept ID:
C1859783
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, juvenile, with dementia
MedGen UID:
395347
Concept ID:
C1859806
Disease or Syndrome
Vasculopathy, retinal, with cerebral leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
348124
Concept ID:
C1860518
Disease or Syndrome
Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy is an adult-onset autosomal dominant disorder involving the microvessels of the brain and resulting in central nervous system degeneration with progressive loss of vision, stroke, motor impairment, and cognitive decline. Death occurs in most patients 5 to 10 years after onset. A subset of affected individuals have systemic vascular involvement evidenced by Raynaud's phenomenon, micronodular cirrhosis, and glomerular dysfunction (summary by Richards et al., 2007).
Choreoathetosis, familial inverted
MedGen UID:
348393
Concept ID:
C1861569
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with ptosis and parkinsonism
MedGen UID:
396191
Concept ID:
C1861668
Disease or Syndrome
Dementia, familial Danish
MedGen UID:
396208
Concept ID:
C1861735
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition that can cause a progressive loss of intellectual function (dementia), stroke, and other neurological problems starting in mid-adulthood. Due to neurological decline, this condition is typically fatal in one's sixties, although there is variation depending on the severity of the signs and symptoms. Most affected individuals die within a decade after signs and symptoms first appear, although some people with the disease have survived longer. There are many different types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The different types are distinguished by their genetic cause and the signs and symptoms that occur. The various types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy are named after the regions where they were first diagnosed. The Dutch type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is the most common form. Stroke is frequently the first sign of the Dutch type and is fatal in about one third of people who have this condition. Survivors often develop dementia and have recurrent strokes. About half of individuals with the Dutch type who have one or more strokes will have recurrent seizures (epilepsy). People with the Flemish and Italian types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy are prone to recurrent strokes and dementia. Individuals with the Piedmont type may have one or more strokes and typically experience impaired movements, numbness or tingling (paresthesias), confusion, or dementia. The first sign of the Icelandic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is typically a stroke followed by dementia. Strokes associated with the Icelandic type usually occur earlier than the other types, with individuals typically experiencing their first stroke in their twenties or thirties. Strokes are rare in people with the Arctic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which the first sign is usually memory loss that then progresses to severe dementia. Strokes are also uncommon in individuals with the Iowa type. This type is characterized by memory loss, problems with vocabulary and the production of speech, personality changes, and involuntary muscle twitches (myoclonus). Two types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, known as familial British dementia and familial Danish dementia, are characterized by dementia and movement problems. Strokes are uncommon in these types. People with the Danish type may also have clouding of the lens of the eyes (cataracts) or deafness.
Alzheimer disease, type 2
MedGen UID:
400197
Concept ID:
C1863051
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood. Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care. As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease. Affected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition). Alzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear before age 65, while the late-onset form appears after age 65. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 5 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.
Huntington disease-like 1
MedGen UID:
355137
Concept ID:
C1864112
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion diseases generally manifest with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) represent the core phenotypes of genetic prion disease. Note: A fourth clinical phenotype, known as Huntington disease like-1 (HDL-1) has been proposed, but this is based on a single report, and the underlying pathologic features would categorize it as GSS. Although it is clear that these four subtypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset ranges from the third to ninth decade of life. The course ranges from a few months to several years (typically 5-7 years; in rare instances, >10 years).
Alzheimer disease, type 10
MedGen UID:
351228
Concept ID:
C1864828
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy, and dementia
MedGen UID:
356630
Concept ID:
C1866849
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 4, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
401097
Concept ID:
C1866855
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 4 (SPG4; also known as SPAST-associated HSP) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral lower-limb gait spasticity. More than 50% of affected individuals have some weakness in the legs and impaired vibration sense at the ankles. About one third have sphincter disturbances. Onset is insidious, mostly in young adulthood, although symptoms may start as early as age one year and as late as age 76 years. Intrafamilial variation is considerable.
Presenile dementia, Kraepelin type
MedGen UID:
356847
Concept ID:
C1867772
Disease or Syndrome
Dementia familial British
MedGen UID:
358054
Concept ID:
C1867773
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition that can cause a progressive loss of intellectual function (dementia), stroke, and other neurological problems starting in mid-adulthood. Due to neurological decline, this condition is typically fatal in one's sixties, although there is variation depending on the severity of the signs and symptoms. Most affected individuals die within a decade after signs and symptoms first appear, although some people with the disease have survived longer. There are many different types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The different types are distinguished by their genetic cause and the signs and symptoms that occur. The various types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy are named after the regions where they were first diagnosed. The Dutch type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is the most common form. Stroke is frequently the first sign of the Dutch type and is fatal in about one third of people who have this condition. Survivors often develop dementia and have recurrent strokes. About half of individuals with the Dutch type who have one or more strokes will have recurrent seizures (epilepsy). People with the Flemish and Italian types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy are prone to recurrent strokes and dementia. Individuals with the Piedmont type may have one or more strokes and typically experience impaired movements, numbness or tingling (paresthesias), confusion, or dementia. The first sign of the Icelandic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is typically a stroke followed by dementia. Strokes associated with the Icelandic type usually occur earlier than the other types, with individuals typically experiencing their first stroke in their twenties or thirties. Strokes are rare in people with the Arctic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which the first sign is usually memory loss that then progresses to severe dementia. Strokes are also uncommon in individuals with the Iowa type. This type is characterized by memory loss, problems with vocabulary and the production of speech, personality changes, and involuntary muscle twitches (myoclonus). Two types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, known as familial British dementia and familial Danish dementia, are characterized by dementia and movement problems. Strokes are uncommon in these types. People with the Danish type may also have clouding of the lens of the eyes (cataracts) or deafness.
Spinocerebellar ataxia 10
MedGen UID:
369786
Concept ID:
C1963674
Disease or Syndrome
SCA10 is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia that usually starts as poor balance and unsteady gait, followed by upper-limb ataxia, scanning dysarthria, and dysphagia. The disease is exclusively found in Latin American populations, particularly those with Amerindian admixture. Abnormal tracking eye movements are common. Recurrent seizures after the onset of gait ataxia have been reported with variable frequencies among different families. Some individuals have cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disturbances, mood disorders, mild pyramidal signs, and peripheral neuropathy. Onset ranges from age 12 to 48 years.
Amyloidogenic transthyretin amyloidosis
MedGen UID:
414031
Concept ID:
C2751492
Disease or Syndrome
Familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis is characterized by a slowly progressive peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy as well as non-neuropathic changes of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, vitreous opacities, and CNS amyloidosis. The disease usually begins in the third to fifth decade in persons from endemic foci in Portugal and Japan; onset is later in persons from other areas. Typically, sensory neuropathy starts in the lower extremities with paresthesias and hypesthesias of the feet, followed within a few years by motor neuropathy. In some persons, particularly those with early onset disease, autonomic neuropathy is the first manifestation of the condition; findings can include: orthostatic hypotension, constipation alternating with diarrhea, attacks of nausea and vomiting, delayed gastric emptying, sexual impotence, anhidrosis, and urinary retention or incontinence. Cardiac amyloidosis is mainly characterized by progressive cardiomyopathy. Individuals with leptomeningeal amyloidosis may have the following CNS findings: dementia, psychosis, visual impairment, headache, seizures, motor paresis, ataxia, myelopathy, hydrocephalus, or intracranial hemorrhage.
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, APP-related
MedGen UID:
414044
Concept ID:
C2751536
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, or cerebroarterial amyloidosis, refers to a pathologic process in which amyloid protein progressively deposits in cerebral blood vessel walls with subsequent degenerative vascular changes that usually result in spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic lesions, and progressive dementia. APP-related CAA is the most common form of CAA (Revesz et al., 2003, 2009).
Spastic paraplegia 46, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
473687
Concept ID:
C2828721
Gene or Genome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-46 (SPG46) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset in childhood of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia and cerebellar signs. Some patients have cognitive impairment, cataracts, and cerebral, cerebellar, and corpus callosum atrophy on brain imaging (summary by Boukhris et al., 2010 and Martin et al., 2013).
Parkinson disease, late-onset
MedGen UID:
463618
Concept ID:
C3160718
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen.
Niemann-Pick disease type C1
MedGen UID:
465922
Concept ID:
C3179455
Disease or Syndrome
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a lipid storage disease that can present in infants, children, or adults. Neonates can present with ascites and severe liver disease from infiltration of the liver and/or respiratory failure from infiltration of the lungs. Other infants, without liver or pulmonary disease, have hypotonia and developmental delay. The classic presentation occurs in mid-to-late childhood with the insidious onset of ataxia, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy (VSGP), and dementia. Dystonia and seizures are common. Dysarthria and dysphagia eventually become disabling, making oral feeding impossible; death usually occurs in the late second or third decade from aspiration pneumonia. Adults are more likely to present with dementia or psychiatric symptoms.
NEUROPATHY, HEREDITARY SENSORY, TYPE IE
MedGen UID:
481515
Concept ID:
C3279885
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections) and skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus). Approximately 75% of affected individuals have LDS type I with craniofacial manifestations (widely spaced eyes, bifid uvula/cleft palate, craniosynostosis); approximately 25% have LDS type II with systemic manifestations of LDSI but minimal or absent craniofacial features. LDSI and LDSII form a clinical continuum. The natural history of LDS is characterized by aggressive arterial aneurysms (mean age at death 26.1 years) and a high incidence of pregnancy-related complications, including death and uterine rupture.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 4
MedGen UID:
482001
Concept ID:
C3280371
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is characterized initially by gait changes followed by progressive spastic paresis, progressive dystonia (which may be limited to the hands and feet or more generalized), neuropsychiatric abnormalities (e.g., emotional lability, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, compulsions, hallucinations, perseveration, inattention, and hyperactivity), and cognitive decline. Additional early findings can include dysphagia, dysarthria, optic atrophy, axonal neuropathy, parkinsonism, and bowel/bladder incontinence. Survival is usually well into adulthood. End-stage disease is characterized by severe dementia, spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 5
MedGen UID:
763887
Concept ID:
C3550973
Disease or Syndrome
NBIA5, sometimes referred to as 'static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA),' is an X-linked neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay in early childhood that is essentially static, with slow motor and cognitive gains until adolescence or early adulthood. In young adulthood, affected individuals develop progressive dystonia, parkinsonism, extrapyramidal signs, and dementia resulting in severe disability. Brain MRI shows iron accumulation in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. A characteristic finding is T1-weighted hyperintensity surrounding a central band of hypointensity in the substantia nigra. Cerebral and cerebellar atrophy are also observed (summary by Haack et al., 2012 and Saitsu et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NBIA, see NBIA1 (234200).
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 4
MedGen UID:
767235
Concept ID:
C3554321
Disease or Syndrome
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-4 is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by the accumulation of calcium deposits in various brain regions, most commonly in the basal ganglia. About half of mutation carriers are asymptomatic, but some present later in life with parkinsonism and impaired cognitive function. Migraine or depression may occur in younger individuals (summary by Nicolas et al., 2013). For a detailed phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IBGC, see IBGC1 (213600).
Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 13
MedGen UID:
811566
Concept ID:
C3715049
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-13 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive cognitive decline and motor dysfunction leading to dementia and often early death. Some patients develop seizures. Neurons show abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent material (summary by Smith et al., 2013). Adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is sometimes referred to as Kufs disease. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN), see CLN1 (256730).
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 5
MedGen UID:
815975
Concept ID:
C3809645
Disease or Syndrome
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-5 (IBGC5) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive neurologic symptoms that are associated with brain calcifications mainly affecting the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in the thalamus, cerebellum, or white matter. Affected individuals have motor symptoms, such as dyskinesias or parkinsonism, headache, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric manifestations, including apathy and depression. Some patients are asymptomatic. The age at symptom onset ranges from late childhood to adulthood; the disorder is progressive (summary by Keller et al., 2013). For a detailed phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IBGC, see IBGC1 (213600).
Benign hereditary chorea
MedGen UID:
98278
Concept ID:
C0393584
Disease or Syndrome
NKX2-1-related disorders range from benign hereditary chorea (BHC) to choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress (also known as brain-lung-thyroid syndrome). Childhood-onset chorea, the hallmark of NKX2-1-related disorders, may or may not be associated with respiratory distress syndrome or congenital hypothyroidism. Chorea generally begins in early infancy or about age one year (most commonly) or in late childhood or adolescence, and progresses into the second decade after which it remains static or (rarely) remits. Pulmonary disease, the second most common manifestation, can include respiratory distress syndrome in neonates, interstitial lung disease in young children, and pulmonary fibrosis in older persons. The risk for pulmonary carcinoma is increased in young adults with an NKX2-1-related disorder. Thyroid dysfunction, the result of dysembryogenesis, can present as congenital hypothyroidism or compensated hypothyroidism. The risk for thyroid cancer is unknown and may not be increased. In one review, 50% of affected individuals had the full brain-lung-thyroid syndrome, 30% had involvement of brain and thyroid only, and 13% had isolated chorea only.
Parkinson disease 2
MedGen UID:
401500
Concept ID:
C1868675
Disease or Syndrome
Parkin type of early-onset Parkinson disease is characterized by rigidity, bradykinesia, and resting tremor. Lower-limb dystonia may be a presenting sign. Onset usually occurs between ages 20 and 40 years with an average age of onset in the early to mid-thirties. The disease is slowly progressive and disease duration of more than 50 years has been reported. Clinical signs vary; hyperreflexia is common. Dyskinesia as a result of treatment with levodopa frequently occurs.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Moore A, Patterson C, Lee L, Vedel I, Bergman H; Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia
Can Fam Physician 2014 May;60(5):433-8. PMID: 24829003Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ossenkoppele R, Jansen WJ, Rabinovici GD, Knol DL, van der Flier WM, van Berckel BN, Scheltens P, Visser PJ; Amyloid PET Study Group, Verfaillie SC, Zwan MD, Adriaanse SM, Lammertsma AA, Barkhof F, Jagust WJ, Miller BL, Rosen HJ, Landau SM, Villemagne VL, Rowe CC, Lee DY, Na DL, Seo SW, Sarazin M, Roe CM, Sabri O, Barthel H, Koglin N, Hodges J, Leyton CE, Vandenberghe R, van Laere K, Drzezga A, Forster S, Grimmer T, Sánchez-Juan P, Carril JM, Mok V, Camus V, Klunk WE, Cohen AD, Meyer PT, Hellwig S, Newberg A, Frederiksen KS, Fleisher AS, Mintun MA, Wolk DA, Nordberg A, Rinne JO, Chételat G, Lleo A, Blesa R, Fortea J, Madsen K, Rodrigue KM, Brooks DJ
JAMA 2015 May 19;313(19):1939-49. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.4669. PMID: 25988463Free PMC Article
Pendlebury ST, Chen PJ, Welch SJ, Cuthbertson FC, Wharton RM, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM; Oxford Vascular Study
Stroke 2015 Jun;46(6):1494-500. Epub 2015 May 7 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009065. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25953366
Köhler S, Buntinx F, Palmer K, van den Akker M
J Am Geriatr Soc 2015 Apr;63(4):692-8. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13357. PMID: 25900484
Jefferson AL, Beiser AS, Himali JJ, Seshadri S, O'Donnell CJ, Manning WJ, Wolf PA, Au R, Benjamin EJ
Circulation 2015 Apr 14;131(15):1333-9. Epub 2015 Feb 19 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012438. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25700178Free PMC Article
Luck T, Luppa M, Matschinger H, Jessen F, Angermeyer MC, Riedel-Heller SG
Acta Psychiatr Scand 2015 Apr;131(4):290-6. Epub 2014 Sep 9 doi: 10.1111/acps.12328. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25201166

Diagnosis

Ossenkoppele R, Jansen WJ, Rabinovici GD, Knol DL, van der Flier WM, van Berckel BN, Scheltens P, Visser PJ; Amyloid PET Study Group, Verfaillie SC, Zwan MD, Adriaanse SM, Lammertsma AA, Barkhof F, Jagust WJ, Miller BL, Rosen HJ, Landau SM, Villemagne VL, Rowe CC, Lee DY, Na DL, Seo SW, Sarazin M, Roe CM, Sabri O, Barthel H, Koglin N, Hodges J, Leyton CE, Vandenberghe R, van Laere K, Drzezga A, Forster S, Grimmer T, Sánchez-Juan P, Carril JM, Mok V, Camus V, Klunk WE, Cohen AD, Meyer PT, Hellwig S, Newberg A, Frederiksen KS, Fleisher AS, Mintun MA, Wolk DA, Nordberg A, Rinne JO, Chételat G, Lleo A, Blesa R, Fortea J, Madsen K, Rodrigue KM, Brooks DJ
JAMA 2015 May 19;313(19):1939-49. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.4669. PMID: 25988463Free PMC Article
Pendlebury ST, Chen PJ, Welch SJ, Cuthbertson FC, Wharton RM, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM; Oxford Vascular Study
Stroke 2015 Jun;46(6):1494-500. Epub 2015 May 7 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009065. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25953366
Köhler S, Buntinx F, Palmer K, van den Akker M
J Am Geriatr Soc 2015 Apr;63(4):692-8. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13357. PMID: 25900484
Katon W, Pedersen HS, Ribe AR, Fenger-Grøn M, Davydow D, Waldorff FB, Vestergaard M
JAMA Psychiatry 2015 Jun;72(6):612-9. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0082. PMID: 25875310
Luck T, Luppa M, Matschinger H, Jessen F, Angermeyer MC, Riedel-Heller SG
Acta Psychiatr Scand 2015 Apr;131(4):290-6. Epub 2014 Sep 9 doi: 10.1111/acps.12328. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25201166

Therapy

Liao KM, Lin TC, Li CY, Yang YH
Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Jun;94(23):e967. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000967. PMID: 26061334
Pendlebury ST, Chen PJ, Welch SJ, Cuthbertson FC, Wharton RM, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM; Oxford Vascular Study
Stroke 2015 Jun;46(6):1494-500. Epub 2015 May 7 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009065. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25953366
Shih HI, Lin CC, Tu YF, Chang CM, Hsu HC, Chi CH, Kao CH
Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 May;94(17):e809. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000809. PMID: 25929937
Chambaere K, Cohen J, Robijn L, Bailey SK, Deliens L
J Am Geriatr Soc 2015 Feb;63(2):290-6. Epub 2015 Feb 2 doi: 10.1111/jgs.13255. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25641376
Wu CK, Yang YH, Lin TT, Tsai CT, Hwang JJ, Lin JL, Chen PC, Chiang FT, Lin LY
J Intern Med 2015 Mar;277(3):343-52. Epub 2014 May 21 doi: 10.1111/joim.12262. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24766342

Prognosis

Liao KM, Lin TC, Li CY, Yang YH
Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Jun;94(23):e967. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000967. PMID: 26061334
Pendlebury ST, Chen PJ, Welch SJ, Cuthbertson FC, Wharton RM, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM; Oxford Vascular Study
Stroke 2015 Jun;46(6):1494-500. Epub 2015 May 7 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009065. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25953366
Köhler S, Buntinx F, Palmer K, van den Akker M
J Am Geriatr Soc 2015 Apr;63(4):692-8. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13357. PMID: 25900484
Jefferson AL, Beiser AS, Himali JJ, Seshadri S, O'Donnell CJ, Manning WJ, Wolf PA, Au R, Benjamin EJ
Circulation 2015 Apr 14;131(15):1333-9. Epub 2015 Feb 19 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012438. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25700178Free PMC Article
Pendlebury ST, Chen PJ, Bull L, Silver L, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM; Oxford Vascular Study
Stroke 2015 Mar;46(3):641-6. Epub 2015 Feb 5 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.008043. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25657179Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Liao KM, Lin TC, Li CY, Yang YH
Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Jun;94(23):e967. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000967. PMID: 26061334
Ossenkoppele R, Jansen WJ, Rabinovici GD, Knol DL, van der Flier WM, van Berckel BN, Scheltens P, Visser PJ; Amyloid PET Study Group, Verfaillie SC, Zwan MD, Adriaanse SM, Lammertsma AA, Barkhof F, Jagust WJ, Miller BL, Rosen HJ, Landau SM, Villemagne VL, Rowe CC, Lee DY, Na DL, Seo SW, Sarazin M, Roe CM, Sabri O, Barthel H, Koglin N, Hodges J, Leyton CE, Vandenberghe R, van Laere K, Drzezga A, Forster S, Grimmer T, Sánchez-Juan P, Carril JM, Mok V, Camus V, Klunk WE, Cohen AD, Meyer PT, Hellwig S, Newberg A, Frederiksen KS, Fleisher AS, Mintun MA, Wolk DA, Nordberg A, Rinne JO, Chételat G, Lleo A, Blesa R, Fortea J, Madsen K, Rodrigue KM, Brooks DJ
JAMA 2015 May 19;313(19):1939-49. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.4669. PMID: 25988463Free PMC Article
Köhler S, Buntinx F, Palmer K, van den Akker M
J Am Geriatr Soc 2015 Apr;63(4):692-8. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13357. PMID: 25900484
Katon W, Pedersen HS, Ribe AR, Fenger-Grøn M, Davydow D, Waldorff FB, Vestergaard M
JAMA Psychiatry 2015 Jun;72(6):612-9. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0082. PMID: 25875310
Jefferson AL, Beiser AS, Himali JJ, Seshadri S, O'Donnell CJ, Manning WJ, Wolf PA, Au R, Benjamin EJ
Circulation 2015 Apr 14;131(15):1333-9. Epub 2015 Feb 19 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012438. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25700178Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Ossenkoppele R, Jansen WJ, Rabinovici GD, Knol DL, van der Flier WM, van Berckel BN, Scheltens P, Visser PJ; Amyloid PET Study Group, Verfaillie SC, Zwan MD, Adriaanse SM, Lammertsma AA, Barkhof F, Jagust WJ, Miller BL, Rosen HJ, Landau SM, Villemagne VL, Rowe CC, Lee DY, Na DL, Seo SW, Sarazin M, Roe CM, Sabri O, Barthel H, Koglin N, Hodges J, Leyton CE, Vandenberghe R, van Laere K, Drzezga A, Forster S, Grimmer T, Sánchez-Juan P, Carril JM, Mok V, Camus V, Klunk WE, Cohen AD, Meyer PT, Hellwig S, Newberg A, Frederiksen KS, Fleisher AS, Mintun MA, Wolk DA, Nordberg A, Rinne JO, Chételat G, Lleo A, Blesa R, Fortea J, Madsen K, Rodrigue KM, Brooks DJ
JAMA 2015 May 19;313(19):1939-49. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.4669. PMID: 25988463Free PMC Article
Solfrizzi V, Panza F
J Alzheimers Dis 2015;43(2):605-11. doi: 10.3233/JAD-141887. PMID: 25352453
Ngo J, Holroyd-Leduc JM
Age Ageing 2015 Jan;44(1):25-33. Epub 2014 Oct 22 doi: 10.1093/ageing/afu143. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25341676
Mukadam N, Cooper C, Kherani N, Livingston G
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2015 Jan;30(1):32-45. Epub 2014 Aug 3 doi: 10.1002/gps.4184. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25132209
Ahmed RM, Paterson RW, Warren JD, Zetterberg H, O'Brien JT, Fox NC, Halliday GM, Schott JM
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Dec;85(12):1426-34. Epub 2014 Sep 26 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2014-307662. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25261571Free PMC Article

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