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Endocarditis

MedGen UID:
4940
Concept ID:
C0014118
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Endocarditides
SNOMED CT: Endocarditis (56819008)
 
HPO: HP:0100584

Definition

Endocarditis, also called infective endocarditis (IE), is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. The most common type, bacterial endocarditis, occurs when germs enter your heart. These germs come through your bloodstream from another part of your body, often your mouth. Bacterial endocarditis can damage your heart valves. If untreated, it can be life-threatening. It is rare in healthy hearts. . Risk factors include having. -An abnormal or damaged heart valve . -An artificial heart valve . -Congenital heart defects. The signs and symptoms of IE can vary from person to person. They also can vary over time in the same person. Symptoms you might notice include fever, shortness of breath, fluid buildup in your arms or legs, tiny red spots on your skin, and weight loss. Your doctor will diagnose IE based on your risk factors, medical history, signs and symptoms, and lab and heart tests. Early treatment can help you avoid complications. Treatment usually involves high-dose antibiotics. If your heart valve is damaged, you may need surgery. If you're at risk for IE, brush and floss your teeth regularly, and have regular dental checkups. Germs from a gum infection can enter your bloodstream. If you are at high risk, your doctor might prescribe antibiotics before dental work and certain types of surgery. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Chu VH, Park LP, Athan E, Delahaye F, Freiberger T, Lamas C, Miro JM, Mudrick DW, Strahilevitz J, Tribouilloy C, Durante-Mangoni E, Pericas JM, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Nacinovich F, Rizk H, Krajinovic V, Giannitsioti E, Hurley JP, Hannan MM, Wang A; International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) Investigators*
Circulation 2015 Jan 13;131(2):131-40. Epub 2014 Dec 5 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012461. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25480814
Dayer MJ, Jones S, Prendergast B, Baddour LM, Lockhart PB, Thornhill MH
Lancet 2015 Mar 28;385(9974):1219-28. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62007-9. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25467569
Ugaki S, Rutledge J, Al Aklabi M, Ross DB, Adatia I, Rebeyka IM
Ann Thorac Surg 2015 Jan;99(1):140-6. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.08.034. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25440268
Sungur A, Hsiung MC, Meggo Quiroz LD, Oz TK, Haj Asaad A, Joshi D, Dönmez C, Güvenç TS, Nanda NC
Echocardiography 2014 Nov;31(10):1293-309. Epub 2014 Sep 25 doi: 10.1111/echo.12785. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25257956
Tattevin P, Revest M, Lefort A, Michelet C, Lortholary O
Int J Antimicrob Agents 2014 Oct;44(4):290-4. Epub 2014 Aug 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.07.003. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25178919

Diagnosis

Dayer MJ, Jones S, Prendergast B, Baddour LM, Lockhart PB, Thornhill MH
Lancet 2015 Mar 28;385(9974):1219-28. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62007-9. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25467569
Ortiz C, López J, García H, Sevilla T, Revilla A, Vilacosta I, Sarriá C, Olmos C, Ferrera C, García PE, Sáez C, Gómez I, San Román JA
Medicine (Baltimore) 2014 Dec;93(27):e137. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000137. PMID: 25501052
Malekzadeh-Milani S, Ladouceur M, Iserin L, Bonnet D, Boudjemline Y
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Nov;148(5):2253-9. Epub 2014 Aug 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.07.097. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25218536
Tattevin P, Revest M, Lefort A, Michelet C, Lortholary O
Int J Antimicrob Agents 2014 Oct;44(4):290-4. Epub 2014 Aug 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.07.003. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25178919
Wang TK, Oh T, Voss J, Gamble G, Kang N, Pemberton J
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2014 Oct;22(8):919-26. Epub 2014 Jan 28 doi: 10.1177/0218492314521613. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24585289

Therapy

Chu VH, Park LP, Athan E, Delahaye F, Freiberger T, Lamas C, Miro JM, Mudrick DW, Strahilevitz J, Tribouilloy C, Durante-Mangoni E, Pericas JM, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Nacinovich F, Rizk H, Krajinovic V, Giannitsioti E, Hurley JP, Hannan MM, Wang A; International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) Investigators*
Circulation 2015 Jan 13;131(2):131-40. Epub 2014 Dec 5 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012461. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25480814
Dayer MJ, Jones S, Prendergast B, Baddour LM, Lockhart PB, Thornhill MH
Lancet 2015 Mar 28;385(9974):1219-28. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62007-9. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25467569
Ortiz C, López J, García H, Sevilla T, Revilla A, Vilacosta I, Sarriá C, Olmos C, Ferrera C, García PE, Sáez C, Gómez I, San Román JA
Medicine (Baltimore) 2014 Dec;93(27):e137. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000137. PMID: 25501052
Tattevin P, Revest M, Lefort A, Michelet C, Lortholary O
Int J Antimicrob Agents 2014 Oct;44(4):290-4. Epub 2014 Aug 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.07.003. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25178919
Wang TK, Oh T, Voss J, Gamble G, Kang N, Pemberton J
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2014 Oct;22(8):919-26. Epub 2014 Jan 28 doi: 10.1177/0218492314521613. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24585289

Prognosis

Chu VH, Park LP, Athan E, Delahaye F, Freiberger T, Lamas C, Miro JM, Mudrick DW, Strahilevitz J, Tribouilloy C, Durante-Mangoni E, Pericas JM, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Nacinovich F, Rizk H, Krajinovic V, Giannitsioti E, Hurley JP, Hannan MM, Wang A; International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) Investigators*
Circulation 2015 Jan 13;131(2):131-40. Epub 2014 Dec 5 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012461. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25480814
Dayer MJ, Jones S, Prendergast B, Baddour LM, Lockhart PB, Thornhill MH
Lancet 2015 Mar 28;385(9974):1219-28. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62007-9. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25467569
Ugaki S, Rutledge J, Al Aklabi M, Ross DB, Adatia I, Rebeyka IM
Ann Thorac Surg 2015 Jan;99(1):140-6. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.08.034. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25440268
Sungur A, Hsiung MC, Meggo Quiroz LD, Oz TK, Haj Asaad A, Joshi D, Dönmez C, Güvenç TS, Nanda NC
Echocardiography 2014 Nov;31(10):1293-309. Epub 2014 Sep 25 doi: 10.1111/echo.12785. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25257956
Tattevin P, Revest M, Lefort A, Michelet C, Lortholary O
Int J Antimicrob Agents 2014 Oct;44(4):290-4. Epub 2014 Aug 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.07.003. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25178919

Clinical prediction guides

Chu VH, Park LP, Athan E, Delahaye F, Freiberger T, Lamas C, Miro JM, Mudrick DW, Strahilevitz J, Tribouilloy C, Durante-Mangoni E, Pericas JM, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Nacinovich F, Rizk H, Krajinovic V, Giannitsioti E, Hurley JP, Hannan MM, Wang A; International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) Investigators*
Circulation 2015 Jan 13;131(2):131-40. Epub 2014 Dec 5 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012461. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25480814
Sungur A, Hsiung MC, Meggo Quiroz LD, Oz TK, Haj Asaad A, Joshi D, Dönmez C, Güvenç TS, Nanda NC
Echocardiography 2014 Nov;31(10):1293-309. Epub 2014 Sep 25 doi: 10.1111/echo.12785. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25257956
Tattevin P, Revest M, Lefort A, Michelet C, Lortholary O
Int J Antimicrob Agents 2014 Oct;44(4):290-4. Epub 2014 Aug 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.07.003. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25178919
Korem M, Israel S, Gilon D, Cahan A, Moses AE, Block C, Strahilevitz J
Eur J Intern Med 2014 Jul;25(6):550-5. Epub 2014 Jun 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2014.05.011. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24931808
Wang TK, Oh T, Voss J, Gamble G, Kang N, Pemberton J
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2014 Oct;22(8):919-26. Epub 2014 Jan 28 doi: 10.1177/0218492314521613. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24585289

Recent systematic reviews

Malhotra A, Rayner J, Williams TM, Prendergast B
Curr Cardiol Rep 2014 Apr;16(4):464. doi: 10.1007/s11886-014-0464-9. PMID: 24585106
Cecchi E, Chirillo F, Faggiano P, Imazio M, Cecconi M, Moreo A, Cialfi A, Rinaldi M, Del Ponte S, Squeri A, Gaddi O, Enia F, Ferro S, Costanzo P, Zuppiroli A, Bergandi G, Bologna F, Ciampani N, De Rosa F, Belli R; Italian Registry on Infective Endocarditis (RIEI) Investigators
Echocardiography 2013 Sep;30(8):871-9. Epub 2013 Mar 12 doi: 10.1111/echo.12173. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23489364
Okonta KE, Adamu YB
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2012 Dec;15(6):1052-6. Epub 2012 Sep 7 doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivs365. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22962320Free PMC Article
Attaran S, Chukwuemeka A, Punjabi PP, Anderson J
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2012 Dec;15(6):1057-61. Epub 2012 Aug 24 doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivs372. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22922449Free PMC Article
Sousa C, Botelho C, Rodrigues D, Azeredo J, Oliveira R
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2012 Nov;31(11):2905-10. Epub 2012 Jun 20 doi: 10.1007/s10096-012-1675-x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22714640

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