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Influenza

MedGen UID:
9466
Concept ID:
C0021400
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Flu, Human; Grippe; Human Flu; Human Influenza; Human Influenzas; Influenza in Human; Influenza in Humans; Influenza, Human; Influenzas; Influenzas, Human
SNOMED CT: Influenza (6142004); Flu (6142004); Grippe (6142004)
 
Gene (location): IFITM3 (11p15.5)
OMIM®: 614680

Definition

Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. The viruses pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth. Between 5% and 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. They may include . -Body or muscle aches. -Chills . -Cough . -Fever . -Headache . -Sore throat . Is it a cold or the flu? Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Flu almost never causes an upset stomach. And stomach flu isn't really flu at all, but gastroenteritis. Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. . The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good hygiene, including hand washing, can also help. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Wilson JR, Guo Z, Tzeng WP, Garten RJ, Xiyan X, Blanchard EG, Blanchfield K, Stevens J, Katz JM, York IA
Virology 2015 Nov;485:252-62. Epub 2015 Aug 27 doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26318247
Smith GJ, Donis RO; World Health Organization/World Organisation for Animal Health/Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/OIE/FAO) H5 Evolution Working Group
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Sep;9(5):271-6. doi: 10.1111/irv.12324. PMID: 25966311Free PMC Article
Greenbaum A, Quinn C, Bailer J, Su S, Havers F, Durand LO, Jiang V, Page S, Budd J, Shaw M, Biggerstaff M, de Fijter S, Smith K, Reed C, Epperson S, Brammer L, Feltz D, Sohner K, Ford J, Jain S, Gargiullo P, Weiss E, Burg P, DiOrio M, Fowler B, Finelli L, Jhung MA
J Infect Dis 2015 Nov 15;212(10):1592-9. Epub 2015 May 5 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv269. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25948864
Tsang TK, Cowling BJ, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cauchemez S
J Infect Dis 2015 Nov 1;212(9):1420-8. Epub 2015 Apr 15 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv225. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25883385Free PMC Article
Najarro K, Nguyen H, Chen G, Xu M, Alcorta S, Yao X, Zukley L, Metter EJ, Truong T, Lin Y, Li H, Oelke M, Xu X, Ling SM, Longo DL, Schneck J, Leng S, Ferrucci L, Weng NP
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1261-9. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv202. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25828247Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

van der Vries E, Ip DK, Cowling BJ, Zhang JD, Tong X, Wojtowicz K, Schutten M, Boucher CA
J Infect Dis 2016 Jan 15;213(2):183-90. Epub 2015 Jul 9 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv375. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26160744
Goldstein E, Greene SK, Olson DR, Hanage WP, Lipsitch M
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Sep;9(5):225-33. doi: 10.1111/irv.12325. PMID: 25980600Free PMC Article
Miller MR, Peters TR, Suerken CK, Snively BM, Poehling KA
J Infect Dis 2015 Nov 15;212(10):1604-12. Epub 2015 May 4 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv264. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25941330Free PMC Article
Arriola CS, Anderson EJ, Baumbach J, Bennett N, Bohm S, Hill M, Lindegren ML, Lung K, Meek J, Mermel E, Miller L, Monroe ML, Morin C, Oni O, Reingold A, Schaffner W, Thomas A, Zansky SM, Finelli L, Chaves SS
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1200-8. Epub 2015 Mar 27 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv200. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25821227Free PMC Article
Thompson MG, Ferber JR, Odouli R, David D, Shifflett P, Meece JK, Naleway AL, Bozeman S, Spencer SM, Fry AM, Li DK
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 May;9(3):155-60. doi: 10.1111/irv.12309. PMID: 25711978Free PMC Article

Therapy

van der Vries E, Ip DK, Cowling BJ, Zhang JD, Tong X, Wojtowicz K, Schutten M, Boucher CA
J Infect Dis 2016 Jan 15;213(2):183-90. Epub 2015 Jul 9 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv375. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26160744
Cheung S, Wang HL, Mascola L, El Amin AN, Pannaraj PS
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Sep;9(5):255-62. doi: 10.1111/irv.12332. PMID: 26073870Free PMC Article
Tsang TK, Cowling BJ, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cauchemez S
J Infect Dis 2015 Nov 1;212(9):1420-8. Epub 2015 Apr 15 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv225. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25883385Free PMC Article
Monto AS, Petrie JG, Cross RT, Johnson E, Liu M, Zhong W, Levine M, Katz JM, Ohmit SE
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1191-9. Epub 2015 Apr 8 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv195. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25858957
Scheminske M, Henninger M, Irving SA, Thompson M, Williams J, Shifflett P, Ball SW, Avalos LA, Naleway AL; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Health Educ Behav 2015 Jun;42(3):402-8. Epub 2014 Dec 12 doi: 10.1177/1090198114560021. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25504630

Prognosis

van der Vries E, Ip DK, Cowling BJ, Zhang JD, Tong X, Wojtowicz K, Schutten M, Boucher CA
J Infect Dis 2016 Jan 15;213(2):183-90. Epub 2015 Jul 9 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv375. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26160744
Hennessy TW, Bruden D, Castrodale L, Komatsu K, Erhart LM, Thompson D, Bradley K, O'Leary DR, McLaughlin J, Landen M; Investigative Team
Epidemiol Infect 2016 Jan;144(2):315-24. Epub 2015 Jun 29 doi: 10.1017/S0950268815001211. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26118767
Cheung S, Wang HL, Mascola L, El Amin AN, Pannaraj PS
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Sep;9(5):255-62. doi: 10.1111/irv.12332. PMID: 26073870Free PMC Article
Brown CR, McCaw JM, Fairmaid EJ, Brown LE, Leder K, Sinclair M, McVernon J
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Sep;9(5):247-54. doi: 10.1111/irv.12331. PMID: 26061755Free PMC Article
Scheminske M, Henninger M, Irving SA, Thompson M, Williams J, Shifflett P, Ball SW, Avalos LA, Naleway AL; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Health Educ Behav 2015 Jun;42(3):402-8. Epub 2014 Dec 12 doi: 10.1177/1090198114560021. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25504630

Clinical prediction guides

Hennessy TW, Bruden D, Castrodale L, Komatsu K, Erhart LM, Thompson D, Bradley K, O'Leary DR, McLaughlin J, Landen M; Investigative Team
Epidemiol Infect 2016 Jan;144(2):315-24. Epub 2015 Jun 29 doi: 10.1017/S0950268815001211. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26118767
Ridenour C, Johnson A, Winne E, Hossain J, Mateu-Petit G, Balish A, Santana W, Kim T, Davis C, Cox NJ, Barr JR, Donis RO, Villanueva J, Williams TL, Chen LM
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Sep;9(5):263-70. doi: 10.1111/irv.12322. PMID: 25962412Free PMC Article
Laurie KL, Guarnaccia TA, Carolan LA, Yan AW, Aban M, Petrie S, Cao P, Heffernan JM, McVernon J, Mosse J, Kelso A, McCaw JM, Barr IG
J Infect Dis 2015 Dec 1;212(11):1701-10. Epub 2015 May 5 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv260. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25943206Free PMC Article
Arriola CS, Anderson EJ, Baumbach J, Bennett N, Bohm S, Hill M, Lindegren ML, Lung K, Meek J, Mermel E, Miller L, Monroe ML, Morin C, Oni O, Reingold A, Schaffner W, Thomas A, Zansky SM, Finelli L, Chaves SS
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1200-8. Epub 2015 Mar 27 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv200. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25821227Free PMC Article
Scheminske M, Henninger M, Irving SA, Thompson M, Williams J, Shifflett P, Ball SW, Avalos LA, Naleway AL; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Health Educ Behav 2015 Jun;42(3):402-8. Epub 2014 Dec 12 doi: 10.1177/1090198114560021. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25504630

Recent systematic reviews

Polyzos KA, Konstantelias AA, Pitsa CE, Falagas ME
Obstet Gynecol 2015 Nov;126(5):1075-84. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001068. PMID: 26444106
Wong JY, Kelly H, Cheung CM, Shiu EY, Wu P, Ni MY, Ip DK, Cowling BJ
Am J Epidemiol 2015 Aug 15;182(4):294-301. Epub 2015 Jul 18 doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv054. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26188191Free PMC Article
Meijer WJ, van Noortwijk AG, Bruinse HW, Wensing AM
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2015 Aug;94(8):797-819. Epub 2015 Jun 13 doi: 10.1111/aogs.12680. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26012384
Xuan Y, Wang LN, Li W, Zi HR, Guo Y, Yan WJ, Chen XB, Wei PM
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Oct;143(14):2975-84. Epub 2015 Mar 17 doi: 10.1017/S0950268815000278. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25778715
Khan SU, Anderson BD, Heil GL, Liang S, Gray GC
J Infect Dis 2015 Aug 15;212(4):562-9. Epub 2015 Feb 23 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv109. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25712969Free PMC Article

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