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Items: 8

1.

Malignant tumor of prostate

The prostate is the gland below a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare in men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family history, and being African-American. Symptoms of prostate cancer may include. -Problems passing urine, such as pain, difficulty starting or stopping the stream, or dribbling. -Low back pain. -Pain with ejaculation. To diagnose prostate cancer, you doctor may do a digital rectal exam to feel the prostate for lumps or anything unusual. You may also get a blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). These tests are also used in prostate cancer screening, which looks for cancer before you have symptoms. If your results are abnormal, you may need more tests, such as an ultrasound, MRI, or biopsy. Treatment often depends on the stage of the cancer. How fast the cancer grows and how different it is from surrounding tissue helps determine the stage. Men with prostate cancer have many treatment options. The treatment that's best for one man may not be best for another. The options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. You may have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
138169
Concept ID:
C0376358
Neoplastic Process
2.

Prostate cancer

A cancer of the prostate. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506673
Concept ID:
CN167851
Finding
3.

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a disease that affects women. In this form of cancer, certain cells in the ovary become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. The ovaries are the female reproductive organs in which egg cells are produced. In about 90 percent of cases, ovarian cancer occurs after age 40, and most cases occur after age 60. The most common form of ovarian cancer begins in epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the surfaces and cavities of the body. These cancers can arise in the epithelial cells on the surface of the ovary. However, researchers suggest that many or even most ovarian cancers begin in epithelial cells on the fringes (fimbriae) at the end of one of the fallopian tubes, and the cancerous cells migrate to the ovary. Cancer can also begin in epithelial cells that form the lining of the abdomen (the peritoneum). This form of cancer, called primary peritoneal cancer, resembles epithelial ovarian cancer in its origin, symptoms, progression, and treatment. Primary peritoneal cancer often spreads to the ovaries. It can also occur even if the ovaries have been removed. Because cancers that begin in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and peritoneum are so similar and spread easily from one of these structures to the others, they are often difficult to distinguish. These cancers are so closely related that they are generally considered collectively by experts. In about 10 percent of cases, ovarian cancer develops not in epithelial cells but in germ cells, which are precursors to egg cells, or in hormone-producing ovarian cells called granulosa cells. In its early stages, ovarian cancer usually does not cause noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include pain or a feeling of heaviness in the pelvis or lower abdomen, bloating, feeling full quickly when eating, back pain, vaginal bleeding between menstrual periods or after menopause, or changes in urinary or bowel habits. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a woman has ovarian cancer. In some cases, cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. If ovarian cancer spreads, cancerous tumors most often appear in the abdominal cavity or on the surfaces of nearby organs such as the bladder or colon. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. Some ovarian cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary ovarian cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases. Because it is often diagnosed at a late stage, ovarian cancer can be difficult to treat; it leads to the deaths of about 140,000 women annually, more than any other gynecological cancer. However, when it is diagnosed and treated early, the 5-year survival rate is high.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
216027
Concept ID:
C1140680
Neoplastic Process
4.

Neoplasm of ovary

Ovarian cancer, the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, is characterized by advanced presentation with loco-regional dissemination in the peritoneal cavity and the rare incidence of visceral metastases (Chi et al., 2001). These typical features relate to the biology of the disease, which is a principal determinant of outcome (Auersperg et al., 2001). Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common form and encompasses 5 major histologic subtypes: papillary serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and transitional cell. Epithelial ovarian cancer arises as a result of genetic alterations sustained by the ovarian surface epithelium (Stany et al., 2008; Soslow, 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
181539
Concept ID:
C0919267
Neoplastic Process
5.

Neoplasm of breast

Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
264172
Concept ID:
C1458155
Neoplastic Process
6.

Neoplasm

A general term for autonomous tissue growth in which the malignancy status has not been established and for which the transformed cell type has not been specifically identified. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
10294
Concept ID:
C0027651
Neoplastic Process
7.

Prostate cancer, hereditary, 4

Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal and multiply without control or order to form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm. Early prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, and most affected men exhibit no noticeable symptoms. Men are often diagnosed as the result of health screenings, such as a blood test for a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) or a medical procedure called a digital rectal exam. As the tumor grows larger, signs and symptoms can include difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine, a feeling of not being able to empty the bladder completely, blood in the urine or semen, or pain with ejaculation. However, these changes can also occur with many other genitourinary conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that a man has prostate cancer. The severity and outcome of prostate cancer varies widely. Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly that they may never cause health problems during their lifetime, even without treatment. In other men, however, the cancer is much more aggressive; in these cases, prostate cancer can be life-threatening. Some cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. The signs and symptoms of metastatic cancer depend on where the disease has spread. If prostate cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver, or brain. Bone metastases of prostate cancer most often cause pain in the lower back, pelvis, or hips. A small percentage of all prostate cancers cluster in families. These hereditary cancers are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary prostate cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
325204
Concept ID:
C1837593
Neoplastic Process
8.

Breast-ovarian cancer, familial 2

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), caused by a germline pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2, is characterized by an increased risk for breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer. The lifetime risk for these cancers in individuals with a pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2: 40%-80% for breast cancer. 11%-40% for ovarian cancer. 1%-10% for male breast cancer. Up to 39% for prostate cancer. 1%-7% for pancreatic cancer. Individuals with BRCA2 pathogenic variants may also be at an increased risk for melanoma. Prognosis for BRCA1/2-related cancer depends on the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed; however, studies on survival have revealed conflicting results for individuals with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variants when compared to controls. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
382625
Concept ID:
C2675520
Finding
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