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Items: 10

1.

Thyroid carcinoma

Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It makes hormones that help the body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater risk if you. -Are between ages 25 and 65. -Are a woman. -Are Asian. -Have a family member who has had thyroid disease. -Have had radiation treatments to your head or neck. You should see a doctor if you have a lump or swelling in your neck. Doctors use a physical exam, blood tests, imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you have and how far the cancer has spread. Many patients receive a combination of treatments. They may include surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
107811
Concept ID:
C0549473
Neoplastic Process
2.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

The presence of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505394
Concept ID:
CN002618
Finding
3.

Thyroid carcinoma

The presence of a carcinoma of the thyroid gland. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505391
Concept ID:
CN002613
Finding
4.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

Nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) comprises thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin and accounts for more than 95% of all thyroid cancer cases. The remaining cancers originate from parafollicular cells (medullary thyroid cancer, MTC; 155240). NMTC is classified into 4 groups: papillary, follicular (188470), Hurthle cell (607464), and anaplastic. Approximately 5% of NMTC is hereditary, occurring as a component of a familial cancer syndrome (e.g., familial adenomatous polyposis, 175100; Carney complex, 160980) or as a primary feature (familial NMTC or FNMTC). Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common histologic subtype of FNMTC, accounting for approximately 85% of cases (summary by Vriens et al., 2009). PTC is characterized by distinctive nuclear alterations including pseudoinclusions, grooves, and chromatin clearing. PTCs smaller than 1 cm are referred to as papillary microcarcinomas. These tumors have been identified in up to 35% of individuals at autopsy, suggesting that they may be extremely common although rarely clinically relevant. PTC can also be multifocal but is typically slow-growing with a tendency to spread to lymph nodes and usually has an excellent prognosis (summary by Bonora et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer NMTC2 (188470) is caused by mutation in the SRGAP1 gene (606523). NMTC3 (606240) represents a susceptibility locus mapped to chromosome 2q21. NMTC4 (616534) is caused by mutation in the FOXE1 gene (602617). NMTC5 (616535) is caused by mutation in the HABP2 gene (603924). A susceptibility gene for familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma with or without cell oxyphilia (TCO; 603386) has been mapped to chromosome 19p. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
66773
Concept ID:
C0238463
Neoplastic Process
5.

Thyroid cancer, follicular

Nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) comprises thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin and accounts for more than 95% of all thyroid cancer cases. The remaining cancers originate from parafollicular cells (medullary thyroid cancer, MTC; 155240). NMTC is classified into 4 groups: papillary, follicular, Hurthle cell (607464), and anaplastic. Approximately 5% of NMTC is hereditary, occurring as a minor component of a familial cancer syndrome (e.g., familial adenomatous polyposis, 175100, Carney complex, 160980) or as a primary feature (familial NMTC or FNMTC). Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common histologic subtype of FNMTC, accounting for approximately 85% of cases (summary by Vriens et al., 2009). Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) accounts for approximately 15% of NMTC and is defined by invasive features that result in infiltration of blood vessels and/or full penetration of the tumor capsule, in the absence of the nuclear alterations that characterize papillary carcinoma. FTC is rarely multifocal and usually does not metastasize to the regional lymph nodes but tends to spread via the bloodstream to the lung and bones. An important histologic variant of FTC is the oncocytic (Hurthle cell, oxyphilic) follicular carcinoma composed of eosinophilic cells replete with mitochondria (summary by Bonora et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NMTC, see NMTC1 (188550). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
64630
Concept ID:
C0206682
Neoplastic Process
6.

Genetic predisposition

A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
137259
Concept ID:
C0314657
Organism Attribute
7.

Abnormality of the thyroid gland

Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It is one of your endocrine glands, which make hormones. Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in your body. These include how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. Thyroid problems include. -Goiter - enlargement of the thyroid gland. -Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs. -Hypothyroidism - when your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones. -Thyroid cancer. -Thyroid nodules - lumps in the thyroid gland. -Thyroiditis - swelling of the thyroid. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
52747
Concept ID:
C0040128
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Neoplasm of the thyroid gland

A tumor (abnormal growth of tissue) of the thyroid gland. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
21546
Concept ID:
C0040136
Neoplastic Process
9.

Disorder of endocrine system

Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They travel through your bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work slowly and affect body processes from head to toe. These include. -Growth and development. -Metabolism - digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and maintaining body temperature . -Sexual function. -Reproduction. -Mood. If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and changes in your blood's fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels. In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too little of a hormone.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
4043
Concept ID:
C0014130
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Adenocarcinoma

A malignant neoplasm arising from glandular cells. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
122
Concept ID:
C0001418
Neoplastic Process
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