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Influenza

MedGen UID:
9466
Concept ID:
C0021400
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Flu, Human; Grippe; Human Flu; Human Influenza; Human Influenzas; Influenza in Human; Influenza in Humans; Influenza, Human; Influenzas; Influenzas, Human
SNOMED CT: Influenza (6142004); Flu (6142004); Grippe (6142004)
 
Gene (location): IFITM3 (11p15.5)
OMIM®: 614680

Definition

Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. The viruses pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth. Between 5% and 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. They may include . -Body or muscle aches. -Chills . -Cough . -Fever . -Headache . -Sore throat . Is it a cold or the flu? Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Flu almost never causes an upset stomach. And stomach flu isn't really flu at all, but gastroenteritis. Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. . The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good hygiene, including hand washing, can also help. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Meltzer MI, Patel A, Ajao A, Nystrom SV, Koonin LM
Clin Infect Dis 2015 May 1;60 Suppl 1:S52-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ089. PMID: 25878301
Kittikraisak W, Suntarattiwong P, Levy J, Fernandez S, Dawood FS, Olsen SJ, Chotpitayasunondh T
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Mar;9(2):85-93. Epub 2015 Jan 5 doi: 10.1111/irv.12302. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25557920Free PMC Article
Chen SC, Hsieh NH, You SH, Wang CH, Liao CM
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Jul;143(9):1846-57. Epub 2014 Oct 31 doi: 10.1017/S0950268814002714. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25359684
Gomaa MR, Kayed AS, Elabd MA, Zeid DA, Zaki SA, El Rifay AS, Sherif LS, McKenzie PP, Webster RG, Webby RJ, Ali MA, Kayali G
J Infect Dis 2015 May 1;211(9):1399-407. Epub 2014 Oct 29 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu529. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25355942Free PMC Article
Sokolow LZ, Naleway AL, Li DK, Shifflett P, Reynolds S, Henninger ML, Ferber JR, Odouli R, Irving SA, Thompson MG; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;212(2):202.e1-11. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25111585

Diagnosis

Morton B, Tang L, Gale R, Kelly M, Robertson H, Mogk M, Robin N, Welters I
Br J Anaesth 2015 Jun;114(6):927-33. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/bja/aev042. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25829394
Daidoji T, Watanabe Y, Ibrahim MS, Yasugi M, Maruyama H, Masuda T, Arai F, Ohba T, Honda A, Ikuta K, Nakaya T
J Biol Chem 2015 Apr 24;290(17):10627-42. Epub 2015 Feb 11 doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.611327. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25673693Free PMC Article
Zhang J, Kang X
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Apr;79(4):481-6. Epub 2015 Jan 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.01.002. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25639552
Skowronski DM, Chambers C, Osei W, Walker J, Petric M, Naus M, Li Y, Krajden M
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Jan;9(1):32-7. Epub 2014 Nov 10 doi: 10.1111/irv.12296. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25382064Free PMC Article
Sokolow LZ, Naleway AL, Li DK, Shifflett P, Reynolds S, Henninger ML, Ferber JR, Odouli R, Irving SA, Thompson MG; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;212(2):202.e1-11. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25111585

Therapy

Biggerstaff M, Reed C, Swerdlow DL, Gambhir M, Graitcer S, Finelli L, Borse RH, Rasmussen SA, Meltzer MI, Bridges CB
Clin Infect Dis 2015 May 1;60 Suppl 1:S20-9. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu1175. PMID: 25878298
Kittikraisak W, Suntarattiwong P, Levy J, Fernandez S, Dawood FS, Olsen SJ, Chotpitayasunondh T
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Mar;9(2):85-93. Epub 2015 Jan 5 doi: 10.1111/irv.12302. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25557920Free PMC Article
Coleman BL, Fadel SA, Drews SJ, Hatchette TF, McGeer AJ
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Mar;9(2):78-84. Epub 2015 Jan 4 doi: 10.1111/irv.12301. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25557838Free PMC Article
Johnson C, Hohenboken M, Poling T, Jaehnig P, Kanesa-Thasan N
J Infect Dis 2015 Jul 1;212(1):72-80. Epub 2014 Dec 23 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu826. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25538277Free PMC Article
Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Malosh RE, Fry AM, Thompson MG, Monto AS
J Infect Dis 2015 May 15;211(10):1519-28. Epub 2014 Nov 21 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu650. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25416812Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Cooper BS, Kotirum S, Kulpeng W, Praditsitthikorn N, Chittaganpitch M, Limmathurotsakul D, Day NP, Coker R, Teerawattananon Y, Meeyai A
Am J Epidemiol 2015 Jun 1;181(11):898-907. Epub 2015 Apr 20 doi: 10.1093/aje/kwu360. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25899091Free PMC Article
Hayward AC, Wang L, Goonetilleke N, Fragaszy EB, Bermingham A, Copas A, Dukes O, Millett ER, Nazareth I, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Watson JM, Zambon M; Flu Watch Group, Johnson AM, McMichael AJ
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015 Jun 15;191(12):1422-31. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201411-1988OC. PMID: 25844934Free PMC Article
Morton B, Tang L, Gale R, Kelly M, Robertson H, Mogk M, Robin N, Welters I
Br J Anaesth 2015 Jun;114(6):927-33. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/bja/aev042. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25829394
Díez-Domingo J, Baldó JM, Planelles-Catarino MV, Garcés-Sánchez M, Ubeda I, Jubert-Rosich A, Marès J, Garcia-Corbeira P, Moris P, Teko M, Vanden Abeele C, Gillard P
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Mar;9(2):68-77. Epub 2015 Feb 5 doi: 10.1111/irv.12295. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25652873Free PMC Article
Zhang J, Kang X
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Apr;79(4):481-6. Epub 2015 Jan 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.01.002. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25639552

Clinical prediction guides

Belser JA, Gustin KM, Katz JM, Maines TR, Tumpey TM
Virology 2015 Jul;481:107-12. Epub 2015 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.02.041. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25771498
Johnson C, Hohenboken M, Poling T, Jaehnig P, Kanesa-Thasan N
J Infect Dis 2015 Jul 1;212(1):72-80. Epub 2014 Dec 23 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu826. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25538277Free PMC Article
Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Malosh RE, Fry AM, Thompson MG, Monto AS
J Infect Dis 2015 May 15;211(10):1519-28. Epub 2014 Nov 21 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu650. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25416812Free PMC Article
Chen SC, Hsieh NH, You SH, Wang CH, Liao CM
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Jul;143(9):1846-57. Epub 2014 Oct 31 doi: 10.1017/S0950268814002714. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25359684
Sokolow LZ, Naleway AL, Li DK, Shifflett P, Reynolds S, Henninger ML, Ferber JR, Odouli R, Irving SA, Thompson MG; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;212(2):202.e1-11. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25111585

Recent systematic reviews

Remschmidt C, Wichmann O, Harder T
BMC Med 2015 Mar 17;13:53. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0295-6. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25857236Free PMC Article
Morton B, Tang L, Gale R, Kelly M, Robertson H, Mogk M, Robin N, Welters I
Br J Anaesth 2015 Jun;114(6):927-33. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/bja/aev042. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25829394
Fell DB, Platt RW, Lanes A, Wilson K, Kaufman JS, Basso O, Buckeridge D
BJOG 2015 Jan;122(1):17-26. Epub 2014 Jul 10 doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12977. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25040307
Sullivan SG, Feng S, Cowling BJ
Expert Rev Vaccines 2014 Dec;13(12):1571-91. Epub 2014 Oct 28 doi: 10.1586/14760584.2014.966695. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25348015Free PMC Article
Biggerstaff M, Cauchemez S, Reed C, Gambhir M, Finelli L
BMC Infect Dis 2014 Sep 4;14:480. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-480. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25186370Free PMC Article

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