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Influenza

MedGen UID:
9466
Concept ID:
C0021400
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Flu, Human; Grippe; Human Flu; Human Influenza; Human Influenzas; Influenza in Human; Influenza in Humans; Influenza, Human; Influenzas; Influenzas, Human
SNOMED CT: Influenza (6142004); Flu (6142004); Grippe (6142004)
 
Gene (location): IFITM3 (11p15.5)
OMIM®: 614680

Definition

Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. The viruses pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth. Between 5% and 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. They may include . -Body or muscle aches. -Chills . -Cough . -Fever . -Headache . -Sore throat . Is it a cold or the flu? Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Flu almost never causes an upset stomach. And stomach flu isn't really flu at all, but gastroenteritis. Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. . The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good hygiene, including hand washing, can also help. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Wilson JR, Guo Z, Tzeng WP, Garten RJ, Xiyan X, Blanchard EG, Blanchfield K, Stevens J, Katz JM, York IA
Virology 2015 Nov;485:252-62. Epub 2015 Aug 27 doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26318247
Greenbaum A, Quinn C, Bailer J, Su S, Havers F, Durand LO, Jiang V, Page S, Budd J, Shaw M, Biggerstaff M, de Fijter S, Smith K, Reed C, Epperson S, Brammer L, Feltz D, Sohner K, Ford J, Jain S, Gargiullo P, Weiss E, Burg P, DiOrio M, Fowler B, Finelli L, Jhung MA
J Infect Dis 2015 Nov 15;212(10):1592-9. Epub 2015 May 5 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv269. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25948864
Tsang TK, Cowling BJ, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cauchemez S
J Infect Dis 2015 Nov 1;212(9):1420-8. Epub 2015 Apr 15 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv225. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25883385Free PMC Article
Monto AS, Petrie JG, Cross RT, Johnson E, Liu M, Zhong W, Levine M, Katz JM, Ohmit SE
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1191-9. Epub 2015 Apr 8 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv195. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25858957
Najarro K, Nguyen H, Chen G, Xu M, Alcorta S, Yao X, Zukley L, Metter EJ, Truong T, Lin Y, Li H, Oelke M, Xu X, Ling SM, Longo DL, Schneck J, Leng S, Ferrucci L, Weng NP
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1261-9. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv202. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25828247Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Bao H, Ma Y, Shi J, Zeng X, Zhao Y, Wang X, Chen H
Arch Virol 2015 Oct;160(10):2471-7. Epub 2015 Jul 16 doi: 10.1007/s00705-015-2511-2. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26179621
Miller MR, Peters TR, Suerken CK, Snively BM, Poehling KA
J Infect Dis 2015 Nov 15;212(10):1604-12. Epub 2015 May 4 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv264. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25941330Free PMC Article
Arriola CS, Anderson EJ, Baumbach J, Bennett N, Bohm S, Hill M, Lindegren ML, Lung K, Meek J, Mermel E, Miller L, Monroe ML, Morin C, Oni O, Reingold A, Schaffner W, Thomas A, Zansky SM, Finelli L, Chaves SS
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1200-8. Epub 2015 Mar 27 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv200. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25821227Free PMC Article
Thompson MG, Ferber JR, Odouli R, David D, Shifflett P, Meece JK, Naleway AL, Bozeman S, Spencer SM, Fry AM, Li DK
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 May;9(3):155-60. doi: 10.1111/irv.12309. PMID: 25711978Free PMC Article
Wang C, Armstrong SM, Sugiyama MG, Tabuchi A, Krauszman A, Kuebler WM, Mullen B, Advani S, Advani A, Lee WL
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2015 Oct;53(4):459-70. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2014-0373OC. PMID: 25693001

Therapy

Xu C, Chan KH, Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Fung RO, Ip DK, Cauchemez S, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ
Am J Epidemiol 2015 Oct 15;182(8):705-13. Epub 2015 Sep 22 doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv110. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26400854Free PMC Article
Tsang TK, Cowling BJ, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Ip DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cauchemez S
J Infect Dis 2015 Nov 1;212(9):1420-8. Epub 2015 Apr 15 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv225. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25883385Free PMC Article
Brousseau N, Green HK, Andrews N, Pryse R, Baguelin M, Sunderland A, Ellis J, Pebody R
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Dec;143(16):3405-15. Epub 2015 Apr 16 doi: 10.1017/S0950268815000667. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25876454
Monto AS, Petrie JG, Cross RT, Johnson E, Liu M, Zhong W, Levine M, Katz JM, Ohmit SE
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1191-9. Epub 2015 Apr 8 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv195. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25858957
Halliley JL, Khurana S, Krammer F, Fitzgerald T, Coyle EM, Chung KY, Baker SF, Yang H, Martínez-Sobrido L, Treanor JJ, Subbarao K, Golding H, Topham DJ, Sangster MY
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1270-8. Epub 2015 Apr 2 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv210. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25838266Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Xu C, Chan KH, Tsang TK, Fang VJ, Fung RO, Ip DK, Cauchemez S, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Cowling BJ
Am J Epidemiol 2015 Oct 15;182(8):705-13. Epub 2015 Sep 22 doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv110. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26400854Free PMC Article
Tanner WD, Toth DJ, Gundlapalli AV
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Dec;143(16):3359-74. Epub 2015 Jul 24 doi: 10.1017/S0950268815001570. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26205078
Miller MR, Peters TR, Suerken CK, Snively BM, Poehling KA
J Infect Dis 2015 Nov 15;212(10):1604-12. Epub 2015 May 4 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv264. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25941330Free PMC Article
Brousseau N, Green HK, Andrews N, Pryse R, Baguelin M, Sunderland A, Ellis J, Pebody R
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Dec;143(16):3405-15. Epub 2015 Apr 16 doi: 10.1017/S0950268815000667. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25876454
Garcia MN, Philpott DC, Murray KO, Ontiveros A, Revell PA, Chandramohan L, Munoz FM
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Oct;143(14):2939-49. Epub 2015 Feb 2 doi: 10.1017/S0950268815000114. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25640583

Clinical prediction guides

Fan RL, Valkenburg SA, Wong CK, Li OT, Nicholls JM, Rabadan R, Peiris JS, Poon LL
J Virol 2015 Nov;89(21):10762-73. Epub 2015 Aug 12 doi: 10.1128/JVI.01443-15. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26269186Free PMC Article
Tanner WD, Toth DJ, Gundlapalli AV
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Dec;143(16):3359-74. Epub 2015 Jul 24 doi: 10.1017/S0950268815001570. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26205078
Arriola CS, Anderson EJ, Baumbach J, Bennett N, Bohm S, Hill M, Lindegren ML, Lung K, Meek J, Mermel E, Miller L, Monroe ML, Morin C, Oni O, Reingold A, Schaffner W, Thomas A, Zansky SM, Finelli L, Chaves SS
J Infect Dis 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1200-8. Epub 2015 Mar 27 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv200. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25821227Free PMC Article
Belser JA, Gustin KM, Katz JM, Maines TR, Tumpey TM
Virology 2015 Jul;481:107-12. Epub 2015 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.02.041. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25771498
Thompson MG, Ferber JR, Odouli R, David D, Shifflett P, Meece JK, Naleway AL, Bozeman S, Spencer SM, Fry AM, Li DK
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 May;9(3):155-60. doi: 10.1111/irv.12309. PMID: 25711978Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Barnes M, Heywood AE, Mahimbo A, Rahman B, Newall AT, Macintyre CR
Heart 2015 Nov;101(21):1738-47. Epub 2015 Aug 26 doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-307691. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26310262Free PMC Article
Wong JY, Kelly H, Cheung CM, Shiu EY, Wu P, Ni MY, Ip DK, Cowling BJ
Am J Epidemiol 2015 Aug 15;182(4):294-301. Epub 2015 Jul 18 doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv054. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26188191Free PMC Article
Meijer WJ, van Noortwijk AG, Bruinse HW, Wensing AM
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2015 Aug;94(8):797-819. Epub 2015 Jun 13 doi: 10.1111/aogs.12680. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26012384
Xuan Y, Wang LN, Li W, Zi HR, Guo Y, Yan WJ, Chen XB, Wei PM
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Oct;143(14):2975-84. Epub 2015 Mar 17 doi: 10.1017/S0950268815000278. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25778715
Khan SU, Anderson BD, Heil GL, Liang S, Gray GC
J Infect Dis 2015 Aug 15;212(4):562-9. Epub 2015 Feb 23 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv109. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25712969Free PMC Article

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