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Results: 1 to 20 of 29

1.

Colorectal Cancer

The colon and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of the large intestine. It is common in both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more likely to get it if you have colorectal polyps, a family history of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, eat a diet high in fat, or smoke. Symptoms of colorectal cancer include: -Diarrhea or constipation. -A feeling that your bowel does not empty completely. -Blood (either bright red or very dark) in your stool. -Stools that are narrower than usual. -Frequent gas pains or cramps, or feeling full or bloated. -Weight loss with no known reason. -Fatigue. -Nausea or vomiting. Because you may not have symptoms at first, it's important to have screening tests. Everyone over 50 should get screened. Tests include colonoscopy and tests for blood in the stool. Treatments for colorectal cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination. Surgery can usually cure it when it is found early. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
287122
Concept ID:
C1527249
Neoplastic Process
2.

Familial colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is common in both men and women. In addition to lifestyle and environmental risk factors, gene defects can contribute to an inherited predisposition to CRC. CRC is caused by changes in different molecular pathogenic pathways, such as chromosomal instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and microsatellite instability. Chromosome instability is the most common alteration and is present in almost 85% of all cases (review by Schweiger et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Colorectal Cancer Mutations in a single gene result in a marked predisposition to colorectal cancer in 2 distinct syndromes: familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; 175100) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; see 120435). FAP is caused by mutations in the APC gene (611731), whereas HNPCC is caused by mutations in several genes, including MSH2 (609309), MLH1 (120436), PMS1 (600258), PMS2 (600259), MSH6 (600678), TGFBR2 (190182), and MLH3 (604395). Epigenetic silencing of MSH2 results in a form of HNPCC (see HNPCC8, 613244). Other colorectal cancer syndromes include autosomal recessive adenomatous polyposis (608456), which is caused by mutations in the MUTYH gene (604933), and oligodontia-colorectal cancer syndrome (608615), which is caused by mutations in the AXIN2 gene (604025). The CHEK2 gene (604373) has been implicated in susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Finnish patients. A germline mutation in the PLA2G2A gene (172411) was identified in a patient with colorectal cancer. Germline susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer have also been identified. CRCS1 (608812) is conferred by mutation in the GALNT12 gene (610290) on chromosome 9q22; CRCS2 (611469) maps to chromosome 8q24; CRCS3 (612229) is conferred by variation in the SMAD7 gene (602932) on chromosome 18; CRCS4 (601228) is conferred by variation on 15q that causes increased and ectopic expression of the GREM1 gene (603054); CRCS5 (612230) maps to chromosome 10p14; CRCS6 (612231) maps to chromosome 8q23; CRCS7 (612232) maps to chromosome 11q23; CRCS8 (612589) maps to chromosome 14q22; CRCS9 (612590) maps to 16q22; CRCS10 (612591) is conferred by mutation in the POLD1 gene (174761) on chromosome 19q13; CRCS11 (612592) maps to chromosome 20p12; and CRCS12 (615083) is conferred by mutation in the POLE gene (174762) on chromosome 12q24. Somatic mutations in many different genes, including KRAS (190070), PIK3CA (171834), BRAF (164757), CTNNB1 (116806), FGFR3 (134934), AXIN2 (604025), AKT1 (164730), MCC (159350), MYH11 (160745), and PARK2 (602544) have been identified in colorectal cancer. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
430218
Concept ID:
CN029768
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Carcinoma of colon

Cancer that forms in the tissues of the colon (the longest part of the large intestine). Most colon cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
147065
Concept ID:
C0699790
Neoplastic Process
4.

Colorectal Carcinoma

Cancer that develops in the colon (the longest part of the large intestine) and/or the rectum (the last several inches of the large intestine before the anus). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
3170
Concept ID:
C0009402
Neoplastic Process
5.

Malignant neoplastic disease

Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body. . Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Most treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. Some may involve hormone therapy, biologic therapy, or stem cell transplantation. . NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
14297
Concept ID:
C0006826
Neoplastic Process
6.

Colon cancer

MedGen UID:
446464
Concept ID:
CN002715
Finding
7.

Distal

Situated farthest from a point of reference. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
64375
Concept ID:
C0205108
8.

Proximal

Situated nearest to a point of reference. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
64374
Concept ID:
C0205107
9.

Disease Attributes

Clinical characteristics of disease or illness. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
199876
Concept ID:
C0752357
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Microsatellite Instability

A change that occurs in the DNA of certain cells (such as tumor cells) in which the number of repeats of microsatellites (short, repeated sequences of DNA) is different than the number of repeats that was in the DNA when it was inherited. The cause of microsatellite instability may be a defect in the ability to repair mistakes made when DNA is copied in the cell. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
182529
Concept ID:
C0920269
Pathologic Function
11.

Genomic Instability

An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
182518
Concept ID:
C0919532
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
12.

Folacin

folate and its derivatives. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
152036
Concept ID:
C0699376
Pharmacologic Substance
13.

Folate

Class of water-soluble vitamins that are coenzymes in single-carbon transfers in the metabolism of nucleic and amino acids. (DRI) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
59819
Concept ID:
C0178638
Pharmacologic Substance
14.

Neoplasm of intestinal tract

Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
43932
Concept ID:
C0021841
Neoplastic Process
15.

Disorder of rectum

The rectum is the lower part of your large intestine where your body stores stool. Problems with rectum are common. They include hemorrhoids, abscesses, incontinence and cancer. Many people are embarrassed to talk about rectal troubles. But seeing your doctor about problems in this area is important. This is especially true if you have pain or bleeding. Treatments vary widely depending on the particular problem. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
19701
Concept ID:
C0034882
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Pathologic Processes

The abnormal mechanisms and forms involved in the dysfunctions of tissues and organs. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
18325
Concept ID:
C0030660
Pathologic Function
17.

Neoplasms by Site

A collective term for precoordinated organ/neoplasm headings locating neoplasms by organ, as BRAIN NEOPLASMS; DUODENAL NEOPLASMS; LIVER NEOPLASMS; etc. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
10296
Concept ID:
C0027653
Neoplastic Process
18.

Neoplasm

A general term for autonomous tissue growth in which the malignancy status has not been established and for which the transformed cell type has not been specifically identified. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
10294
Concept ID:
C0027651
Neoplastic Process
19.

Disorder of gastrointestinal tract

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the gastrointestinal tract, anus, liver, biliary system, and pancreas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
8970
Concept ID:
C0017178
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Folic Acid

Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. When a woman has enough folic acid in her body before and during pregnancy, it can prevent major birth defects of her baby's brain or spine. . Foods with folic acid in them include leafy green vegetables, fruits, dried beans, peas and nuts. Enriched breads, cereals and other grain products also contain folic acid. If you don't get enough folic acid from the foods you eat, you can also take it as a dietary supplement. NIH: National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
8876
Concept ID:
C0016410
Pharmacologic Substance

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