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Hypertension

MedGen UID:
635666
Concept ID:
C0497247
Finding
Synonyms: Elevated blood pressure; Increased blood pressure; Systemic hypertension
SNOMED CT: Raised blood pressure (24184005); Elevated blood pressure (24184005); Finding of increased blood pressure (24184005); Blood pressure elevation (24184005); Raised blood pressure (38341003); Elevated blood pressure (38341003)
 
HPO: HP:0000822

Definition

A finding of increased blood pressure; not necessarily hypertensive disorder [from SNOMED CT]

Conditions with this feature

Acrocephalosyndactyly type I
MedGen UID:
7858
Concept ID:
C0001193
Congenital Abnormality
The eight disorders comprising the FGFR-related craniosynostosis spectrum are Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome (isolated coronal synostosis caused by the p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3). Muenke syndrome and FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis are characterized only by uni- or bicoronal craniosynostosis; the remainder are characterized by bicoronal craniosynostosis or cloverleaf skull, distinctive facial features, and variable hand and foot findings.
Alkaptonuria
MedGen UID:
1413
Concept ID:
C0002066
Disease or Syndrome
Alkaptonuria is caused by deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, an enzyme that converts homogentisic acid (HGA) to maleylacetoacetic acid in the tyrosine degradation pathway. The three major features of alkaptonuria are the presence of HGA in the urine, ochronosis (bluish-black pigmentation in connective tissue), and arthritis of the spine and larger joints. Oxidation of the HGA excreted in the urine produces a melanin-like product and causes the urine to turn dark upon standing. Ochronosis occurs only after age 30 years; arthritis often begins in the third decade. Other manifestations include pigment deposition, aortic or mitral valve calcification or regurgitation and occasionally aortic dilatation, renal stones, and prostate stones.
Fabry's disease
MedGen UID:
8083
Concept ID:
C0002986
Disease or Syndrome
Fabry disease results from deficient activity of the enzyme a-galactosidase (a-Gal A) and progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in cells throughout the body. The classic form, occurring in males with less than 1% a-Gal A enzyme activity, usually has its onset in childhood or adolescence with periodic crises of severe pain in the extremities (acroparesthesias), the appearance of vascular cutaneous lesions (angiokeratomas), sweating abnormalities (anhydrosis, hypohydosis, and rarely hyperhidrosis), characteristic corneal and lenticular opacities, and proteinuria. Gradual deterioration of renal function to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually occurs in men in the third to fifth decade. In middle age, most males successfully treated for ESRD develop cardiac and/or cerebrovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Heterozygous females typically have milder symptoms at a later age of onset than males. Rarely, they may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. In contrast, males with greater than 1% a-Gal A activity may have either (1) a cardiac variant phenotype that usually presents in the sixth to eighth decade with left ventricular hypertrophy, mitral insufficiency and/or cardiomyopathy, and proteinuria, but without ESRD; or (2) a renal variant phenotype, associated with ESRD but without the skin lesions or pain.
Familial dysautonomia
MedGen UID:
41678
Concept ID:
C0013364
Congenital Abnormality
Familial dysautonomia (FD) affects the development and survival of sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic neurons. It is a debilitating disease present from birth. Neuronal degeneration progresses throughout life. Affected individuals have gastrointestinal dysfunction, vomiting crises, recurrent pneumonia, altered sensitivity to pain and temperature perception, and cardiovascular instability. About 40% of individuals have autonomic crises. Hypotonia contributes to delay in acquisition of motor milestones. Older individuals often have a broad-based and ataxic gait that deteriorates over time. Life expectancy is decreased.
Berger disease
MedGen UID:
9032
Concept ID:
C0017661
Disease or Syndrome
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a major public health problem, affecting 1 in 1,000 individuals and with an annual death rate of 20% despite dialysis treatment. IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis, a principal cause of ESRD worldwide, affecting up to 1.3% of the population. Kidneys of patients with IgA nephropathy show deposits of IgA-containing immune complexes with proliferation of the glomerular mesangium. Typical clinical features include onset before age 40 with hematuria and proteinuria, and episodes of gross hematuria following mucosal infections are common; 30% of patients develop progressive renal failure. Although not generally considered a hereditary disease, striking ethnic variation in prevalence (Julian et al., 1985; D'Amico, 1987) and familial clustering (Scolari et al., 1999), along with subclinical renal abnormalities among relatives of cases, suggest a genetic component (Gharavi et al., 2000). Genetic Heterogeneity of IgA Nephropathy A locus for familial IgA nephropathy, called IGAN1, on 6q22-q23, was described by Gharavi et al. (2000). Another locus, IGAN2 (613944), was identified by Paterson et al. (2007) on chromosome 2q36. Polymorphisms in the ACE (106180) and AGT (106150) genes have been associated with progression to chronic renal failure in patients with IgA nephropathy.
Glycogen storage disease, type I
MedGen UID:
6640
Concept ID:
C0017920
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is characterized by accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys, resulting in hepatomegaly and renomegaly. The two subtypes (GSDIa and GSDIb) are clinically indistinguishable. Although some untreated neonates present with severe hypoglycemia, more commonly, untreated infants present at age three to four months with hepatomegaly, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia and/or hypoglycemic seizures. Affected children typically have doll-like faces with fat cheeks, relatively thin extremities, short stature, and protuberant abdomen. Xanthoma and diarrhea may be present. Impaired platelet function can lead to a bleeding tendency with frequent epistaxis. Untreated GSDIb is associated with impaired neutrophil and monocyte function as well as chronic neutropenia after the first few years of life, all of which result in recurrent bacterial infections and oral and intestinal mucosal ulcers. Long-term complications of untreated GSDI include growth retardation resulting in short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, gout, renal disease, pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas with potential for malignant transformation, polycystic ovaries, pancreatitis, and changes in brain function. Normal growth and puberty may be expected in treated children. Many affected individuals live into adulthood.
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
MedGen UID:
42458
Concept ID:
C0019562
Disease or Syndrome
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is characterized by hemangioblastomas of the brain, spinal cord, and retina; renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma; pheochromocytoma, pancreatic cysts and neuroendocrine tumors; endolymphatic sac tumors; and epididymal and broad ligament cysts. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas may be associated with headache, vomiting, gait disturbances, or ataxia. Spinal hemangioblastomas and related syrinx usually present with pain. Sensory and motor loss may develop with cord compression. Retinal hemangioblastomas may be the initial manifestation of VHL disease and can cause vision loss. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in about 70% of individuals with VHL and is the leading cause of mortality. Pheochromocytomas can be asymptomatic but may cause sustained or episodic hypertension. Pancreatic lesions often remain asymptomatic and rarely cause endocrine or exocrine insufficiency. Endolymphatic sac tumors can cause hearing loss of varying severity, which can be a presenting symptom. Cysts of the epididymis are relatively common. They rarely cause problems, unless bilateral, in which case they may result in infertility.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2a
MedGen UID:
9958
Concept ID:
C0025268
Neoplastic Process
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is classified into three subtypes: MEN 2A, FMTC (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma), and MEN 2B. All three subtypes involve high risk for development of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC); MEN 2A and MEN 2B have an increased risk for pheochromocytoma; MEN 2A has an increased risk for parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. Additional features in MEN 2B include mucosal neuromas of the lips and tongue, distinctive facies with enlarged lips, ganglioneuromatosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and a ‘marfanoid’ habitus. MTC typically occurs in early childhood in MEN 2B, early adulthood in MEN 2A, and middle age in FMTC.
Nail-patella syndrome
MedGen UID:
10257
Concept ID:
C0027341
Congenital Abnormality
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) involves a classic clinical tetrad of changes in the nails, knees, and elbows, and the presence of iliac horns. Nail changes are the most constant feature of NPS. Nails may be absent, hypoplastic, or dystrophic; ridged longitudinally or horizontally; pitted; discolored; separated into two halves by a longitudinal cleft or ridge of skin; and thin or (less often) thickened. The patellae may be small, irregularly shaped, or absent. Elbow abnormalities may include limitation of extension, pronation, and supination; cubitus valgus; and antecubital pterygia. Iliac horns are bilateral, conical, bony processes that project posteriorly and laterally from the central part of the iliac bones of the pelvis. Renal involvement, first manifest as proteinuria with or without hematuria, occurs in 30%-50% of affected individuals; end-stage renal disease (ESRD) occurs in about 5% of affected individuals. Primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension occur at increased frequency and at a younger age than in the general population.
Neuroblastoma
MedGen UID:
18012
Concept ID:
C0027819
Neoplastic Process
ALK-related neuroblastic tumor susceptibility results from heterozygosity for a germline ALK activating pathogenic variant in the tyrosine kinase domain that predisposes to neuroblastic tumors. The spectrum of neuroblastic tumors includes neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma. Neuroblastoma is a more malignant tumor and ganglioneuroma a more benign tumor. Depending on the histologic findings ganglioneuroblastoma can behave in a more aggressive fashion, like neuroblastoma, or in a benign fashion, like ganglioneuroma. At present there are no data regarding the lifetime risk to an individual with a germline ALK pathogenic variant of developing a neuroblastic tumor. Preliminary data from the ten reported families with ALK-related neuroblastic tumor susceptibility suggest that the overall penetrance is around 57% with the risk for neuroblastic tumor development highest in infancy and decreasing by late childhood.
Neurofibromatosis, type 1
MedGen UID:
18013
Concept ID:
C0027831
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is characterized by multiple café-au-lait spots, axillary and inguinal freckling, multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, and iris Lisch nodules. Learning disabilities are present in at least 50% of individuals with NF1. Less common but potentially more serious manifestations include plexiform neurofibromas, optic nerve and other central nervous system gliomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, scoliosis, tibial dysplasia, and vasculopathy.
Polyarteritis nodosa
MedGen UID:
14681
Concept ID:
C0031036
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset polyarteritis nodosa is an autosomal recessive systemic vascular inflammatory disorder characterized mainly by involvement of the skin, nervous system, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. There is considerable variability in the severity and age at onset, although most patients have onset of symptoms in the first decade. Features include recurrent ischemic stroke affecting the small vessels of the brain and resulting in neurologic dysfunction, recurrent fever, elevated acute-phase proteins, myalgias, and livedo racemosa or reticularis with an inflammatory vasculitis on biopsy. Some patients develop hypertension, aneurysms, or ischemic necrosis of the digits (summary by Zhou et al., 2014 and Navon Elkan et al., 2014). Some patients present with clinical immunodeficiency van Eyck et al., 2014).
Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins
MedGen UID:
45824
Concept ID:
C0031190
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is characterized histologically by failure of formation and ingrowth of alveolar capillaries that then do not make contact with alveolar epithelium, medial muscular thickening of small pulmonary arterioles with muscularization of the intraacinar arterioles, thickened alveolar walls, and anomalously situated pulmonary veins running alongside pulmonary arterioles and sharing the same adventitial sheath. Less common features include a reduced number of alveoli and a patchy distribution of the histopathologic changes. The disorder is associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and shows varying degrees of lability and severity (Boggs et al., 1994). Affected infants present with respiratory distress resulting from pulmonary hypertension in the early postnatal period, and the disease is uniformly fatal within the newborn period (Vassal et al., 1998). Additional features of ACDMPV include multiple congenital anomalies affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as disruption of the normal right-left asymmetry of intrathoracic or intraabdominal organs (Sen et al., 2004).
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome
MedGen UID:
10819
Concept ID:
C0032339
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small stature; skeletal and dental abnormalities; cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. The skin is typically normal at birth; the rash of RTS develops between age three and six months as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face and subsequently spreads to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, punctate atrophy, and telangiectases, collectively known as poikiloderma. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities include dysplasias, absent or malformed bones (such as absent radii), osteopenia, and delayed bone formation.
Preeclampsia/eclampsia 1
MedGen UID:
18608
Concept ID:
C0032914
Pathologic Function
Preeclampsia, which along with chronic hypertension and gestational hypertension comprise the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, is characterized by new hypertension (blood pressure 140/90 or greater) presenting after 20 weeks' gestation with clinically relevant proteinuria. Preeclampsia is 1 of the top 4 causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide (summary by Payne et al., 2011). Preeclampsia is otherwise known as gestational proteinuric hypertension (Davey and MacGillivray, 1988). A high proportion of patients with preeclampsia have glomerular endotheliosis, the unique histopathologic feature of the condition (Fisher et al., 1981). A distinct form of severe preeclampsia is characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platlets (HELLP syndrome) (Brown et al., 2000). Genetic Heterogeneity of Preeclampsia/Eclampsia Susceptibility loci for preeclampsia/eclampsia include PEE1 on chromosome 2p13, PEE2 (609402) on chromosome 2p25, and PEE3 (609403) on chromosome 9p13. PEE4 (609404) is caused by mutation in the STOX1 gene (609397) on chromosome 10q22. PEE5 (614595) is caused by mutation in the CORIN gene (605236) on chromosome 4p12. An association with PEE has been found with the EPHX1 gene (132810) on chromosome 1q.
Benign intracranial hypertension
MedGen UID:
18732
Concept ID:
C0033845
Disease or Syndrome
An idiopathic disorder characterized by chronic increase in the intracranial pressure. It occurs predominantly in obese females of childbearing age. It is associated with papilledema.
Essential thrombocythemia
MedGen UID:
11797
Concept ID:
C0040028
Disease or Syndrome
Thrombocythemia, or thrombocytosis, is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive platelet production resulting in increased numbers of circulating platelets. Thrombocythemia can be associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic episodes and occasional leukemic transformation (summary by Wiestner et al., 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Thrombocythemia THCYT2 (601977) is caused by germline or somatic mutation in the THPO receptor gene (MPL; 159530) on chromosome 1p34; THCYT3 (614521) is caused by germline or somatic mutation in the JAK2 gene (147796) on chromosome 9p; and a possible X-linked form (THCYTX; 300331) has been reported. Somatic mutations in the TET2 (612839), ASXL1 (612990), SH2B3 (605093), and SF3B1 (605590) genes have also been found in cases of essential thrombocythemia. Somatic mutation in the CALR gene (109091) occurs in approximately 70% of essential thrombocythemia patients who lack JAK2 and MPL mutations (Klampfl et al., 2013; Nangalia et al., 2013).
Wegener's granulomatosis
MedGen UID:
12144
Concept ID:
C0043092
Disease or Syndrome
Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic disease with a complex genetic background. It is characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, and the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmatic autoantibodies (ANCAs) in patient sera. These ANCAs are antibodies to a defined target antigen, proteinase-3 (PR3, PRTN3; 177020), that is present within primary azurophil granules of neutrophils (PMNs) and lysozymes of monocytes. On cytokine priming of PMNs, PR3 translocates to the cell surface, where PR3-ANCAs can interact with their antigens and activate PMNs. PMNs from patients with active WG express PR3 on their surface, produce respiratory burst, and release proteolytic enzymes after activation with PR3-ANCAs. The consequence is a self-sustaining inflammatory process (Jagiello et al., 2004).
Werner syndrome
MedGen UID:
12147
Concept ID:
C0043119
Disease or Syndrome
Werner syndrome is characterized by the premature appearance of features associated with normal aging and cancer predisposition. Individuals with Werner syndrome develop normally until the end of the first decade. The first sign is the lack of a growth spurt during the early teen years. Early findings (usually observed in the 20s) include loss and graying of hair, hoarseness, and scleroderma-like skin changes, followed by bilateral ocular cataracts, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, skin ulcers, and osteoporosis in the 30s. Myocardial infarction and cancer are the most common causes of death; the mean age of death in individuals with Werner syndrome is 54 years.
Stiff-man syndrome
MedGen UID:
39017
Concept ID:
C0085292
Disease or Syndrome
The stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is most often an adult-onset sporadic acquired disorder characterized by progressive muscle stiffness with superimposed painful muscle spasms accompanied by electromyographic evidence of continuous motor activity at rest. SPS has been associated with autoimmune disorders, diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, and hypopituitarism with adrenal insufficiency (George et al., 1984). Approximately 60% of patients with SPS have antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD2, or GAD65; 138275), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggesting an immune-mediated pathogenesis (Folli et al., 1993). Approximately 10% of patients develop SPS as a paraneoplastic neurologic disorder associated with antibodies to amphiphysin (AMPH; 600418), an intracellular protein associated with neuronal synaptic vesicle endocytosis (Burns, 2005). See also congenital stiff-man syndrome, or hereditary hyperexplexia (149400), which is caused by mutations in subunits of the glycine receptor gene (GLRA1, 138491; GLRB, 138492). Meinck and Thompson (2002) provided a detailed review of stiff-person syndrome. They also discussed 2 possibly related conditions, progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity (PERM), a more severe disorder with other neurologic features, and stiff-limb or stiff-leg syndrome, a focal disorder.
Hurler syndrome
MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes, Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome, no biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap; thus, affected individuals are best described as having either severe or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory-tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal. By age three years, linear growth ceases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound. Hearing loss is common. Death, typically caused by cardiorespiratory failure, usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decades to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities can be present. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. Hearing loss and cardiac valvular disease are common.
Primary pulmonary hypertension
MedGen UID:
57749
Concept ID:
C0152171
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by widespread obstruction and obliteration of the smallest pulmonary arteries. When a sufficient number of vessels are occluded, the resistance to blood flow through the lungs increases, and the right ventricle attempts to compensate by generating higher pressure to maintain pulmonary blood flow. When the right ventricle can no longer compensate for the increased resistance, progressive heart failure ensues. Initial symptoms include dyspnea (60%), fatigue (19%), syncope (8%), chest pain (7%), palpitations (5%), and leg edema (3%). All ages are affected, but the mean age at diagnosis is 36 years. Mean survival after diagnosis is 2.8 years; current therapy does improve clinical function but has modest effect on survival. The term heritable PAH (HPAH) includes familial PAH (PAH that occurs in two or more family members) and simplex PAH (i.e., a single occurrence in a family) when a pathogenic variant has been identified. Most heritable PAH (75%) is caused by a pathogenic variant in BMPR2; pathogenic variants in other genes (i.e., ACVRL1, KCNK3, CAV1, SMAD9, BMPR1B,) are considerably less common (1-3%). HPAH has identical symptoms, signs, and histology as PAH of unknown cause. The time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis may be shorter in individuals with familial PAH, possibly because of familial awareness of the disease. Three retrospective studies suggest that persons with PAH who have a BMPR2 pathogenic variant exhibit more severe disease.
Hypohidrotic X-linked ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
57890
Concept ID:
C0162359
Congenital Abnormality
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow-growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, and at a later than average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits.
Hereditary coproporphyria
MedGen UID:
57931
Concept ID:
C0162531
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is an acute (hepatic) porphyria in which the acute symptoms are neurovisceral and occur in discrete episodes. Attacks typically start in the abdomen with low-grade pain that slowly increases over a period of days (not hours) with nausea progressing to vomiting. In some individuals, the pain is predominantly in the back or extremities. When an acute attack is untreated, a motor neuropathy may develop over a period of days or a few weeks. The neuropathy first appears as weakness proximally in the arms and legs, then progresses distally to involve the hands and feet. Some individuals experience respiratory insufficiency due to loss of innervation of the diaphragm and muscles of respiration. Acute attacks are associated commonly with use of certain medications, caloric deprivation, and changes in female reproductive hormones. About 20% of those with an acute attack also experience photosensitivity associated with bullae and skin fragility.
Acute intermittent porphyria
MedGen UID:
56452
Concept ID:
C0162565
Disease or Syndrome
Acute intermittent porphyria (referred to as AIP in this GeneReview) results from half-normal activity of the enzyme hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It is characterized clinically by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks of severe abdominal pain without peritoneal signs, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and hypertension. Attacks may be complicated by neurologic findings (mental changes, convulsions, and peripheral neuropathy that may progress to respiratory paralysis), and hyponatremia. Acute attacks, which may be provoked by certain drugs, alcoholic beverages, endocrine factors, calorie restriction, stress, and infections, usually resolve within two weeks. Most individuals with AIP have one or a few attacks; about 5% (mainly women) have recurrent attacks (defined as >4 attacks/year) that may persist for years. Other long-term complications are chronic renal failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and hypertension. Attacks, which are very rare before puberty, are more common in women than men. All individuals with a genetic change in the gene HMBS that predisposes to AIP are at risk of developing acute attacks; however, most never have symptoms and are said to have latent (or presymptomatic) AIP.
Juvenile myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis AND stroke
MedGen UID:
56485
Concept ID:
C0162671
Disease or Syndrome
MELAS syndrome, comprising mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes, is a genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with a variable clinical phenotype. The disorder is accompanied by features of central nervous system involvement, including seizures, hemiparesis, hemianopsia, cortical blindness, and episodic vomiting (Pavlakis et al., 1984; Montagna et al., 1988). Other mitochondrial encephalomyopathies include Leigh syndrome (LS; 256000), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS; 530000), MERRF syndrome (545000), and Leber optic atrophy (535000).
Pseudoprimary hyperaldosteronism
MedGen UID:
67439
Concept ID:
C0221043
Disease or Syndrome
Liddle syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by early-onset salt-sensitive hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone secretion (summary by Yang et al., 2014).
Pituitary dependent hypercortisolism
MedGen UID:
66381
Concept ID:
C0221406
Disease or Syndrome
Cushing 'disease' is a condition associated with increased blood cortisol resulting from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary tumors that are resistant to glucocorticoid negative feedback (Bilodeau et al., 2006). ACTH is formed as a precursor from the POMC gene product (176830). See also Cushing 'syndrome' (219080), in which excess cortisol secretion results from adrenocortical pathology.
Glucose-6-phosphate transport defect
MedGen UID:
78644
Concept ID:
C0268146
Congenital Abnormality
Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is characterized by accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys, resulting in hepatomegaly and renomegaly. The two subtypes (GSDIa and GSDIb) are clinically indistinguishable. Although some untreated neonates present with severe hypoglycemia, more commonly, untreated infants present at age three to four months with hepatomegaly, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia and/or hypoglycemic seizures. Affected children typically have doll-like faces with fat cheeks, relatively thin extremities, short stature, and protuberant abdomen. Xanthoma and diarrhea may be present. Impaired platelet function can lead to a bleeding tendency with frequent epistaxis. Untreated GSDIb is associated with impaired neutrophil and monocyte function as well as chronic neutropenia after the first few years of life, all of which result in recurrent bacterial infections and oral and intestinal mucosal ulcers. Long-term complications of untreated GSDI include growth retardation resulting in short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, gout, renal disease, pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas with potential for malignant transformation, polycystic ovaries, pancreatitis, and changes in brain function. Normal growth and puberty may be expected in treated children. Many affected individuals live into adulthood.
Deficiency of steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase
MedGen UID:
82782
Concept ID:
C0268285
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase
MedGen UID:
82783
Concept ID:
C0268292
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of corticosteroid biosynthesis resulting in androgen excess, virilization, and hypertension. The defect causes decreased synthesis of cortisol and corticosterone in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland, resulting in accumulation of the precursors 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone; the latter is a potent salt-retaining mineralocorticoid that leads to arterial hypertension (White et al., 1991). CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for approximately 5 to 8% of all CAH cases; approximately 90% of cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (201910) (White et al., 1991).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classic type
MedGen UID:
78660
Concept ID:
C0268335
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), classic type is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, abnormal wound healing, and joint hypermobility. It includes two previously designated subtypes (EDS type I and EDS type II) that are now recognized to form a continuum of clinical findings. The skin is smooth, velvety to the touch, and hyperelastic; i.e., it extends easily and snaps back after release (unlike lax, redundant skin, as in cutis laxa). The skin is fragile, as manifested by splitting of the dermis following relatively minor trauma, especially over pressure points (knees, elbows) and areas prone to trauma (shins, forehead, chin). Wound healing is delayed, and stretching of scars after apparently successful primary wound healing is characteristic. Complications of joint hypermobility, such as dislocations of the shoulder, patella, digits, hip, radius, and clavicle, usually resolve spontaneously or are easily managed by the affected individual. Other features include hypotonia with delayed motor development, fatigue and muscle cramps, and easy bruising. Less common findings include mitral and tricuspid valve prolapse, aortic root dilatation, and spontaneous rupture of large arteries.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type 2
MedGen UID:
120628
Concept ID:
C0268336
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), classic type is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, abnormal wound healing, and joint hypermobility. It includes two previously designated subtypes (EDS type I and EDS type II) that are now recognized to form a continuum of clinical findings. The skin is smooth, velvety to the touch, and hyperelastic; i.e., it extends easily and snaps back after release (unlike lax, redundant skin, as in cutis laxa). The skin is fragile, as manifested by splitting of the dermis following relatively minor trauma, especially over pressure points (knees, elbows) and areas prone to trauma (shins, forehead, chin). Wound healing is delayed, and stretching of scars after apparently successful primary wound healing is characteristic. Complications of joint hypermobility, such as dislocations of the shoulder, patella, digits, hip, radius, and clavicle, usually resolve spontaneously or are easily managed by the affected individual. Other features include hypotonia with delayed motor development, fatigue and muscle cramps, and easy bruising. Less common findings include mitral and tricuspid valve prolapse, aortic root dilatation, and spontaneous rupture of large arteries.
Familial visceral amyloidosis, Ostertag type
MedGen UID:
82799
Concept ID:
C0268389
Congenital Abnormality
Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease
MedGen UID:
75678
Concept ID:
C0268414
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile Paget disease is a disorder that affects bone growth. This disease causes bones to be abnormally large, misshapen, and easily broken (fractured). The signs of juvenile Paget disease appear in infancy or early childhood. As bones grow, they become progressively weaker and more deformed. These abnormalities usually become more severe during the adolescent growth spurt, when bones grow very quickly. Juvenile Paget disease affects the entire skeleton, resulting in widespread bone and joint pain. The bones of the skull tend to grow unusually large and thick, which can lead to hearing loss. The disease also affects bones of the spine (vertebrae). The deformed vertebrae can collapse, leading to abnormal curvature of the spine. Additionally, weight-bearing long bones in the legs tend to bow and fracture easily, which can interfere with standing and walking.
Alstrom syndrome
MedGen UID:
78675
Concept ID:
C0268425
Congenital Abnormality
Alström syndrome is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, obesity, progressive sensorineural hearing impairment, dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy, the insulin resistance syndrome, and multiple organ failure. Wide clinical variability is observed among affected individuals, even within the same family. Cone-rod dystrophy presents as progressive visual impairment, photophobia, and nystagmus usually starting between birth and age 15 months. Many individuals lose all perception of light by the end of the second decade, but a minority retain the ability to read large print into the third decade. Children usually have normal birth weight but develop truncal obesity during their first year. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss presents in the first decade in as many as 70% of individuals. Hearing loss may progress to the severe or moderately severe range (40-70 db) by the end of the first to second decade. Insulin resistance is typically accompanied by the skin changes of acanthosis nigricans, and proceeds to type 2 diabetes in the majority by the third decade. Nearly all demonstrate associated dyslipidemia. Other endocrine abnormalities can include hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in boys, and polycystic ovaries in girls. More than 60% of individuals with Alström syndrome develop cardiac failure as a result of dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy. About 50% of individuals have delay in early developmental milestones; intelligence is normal. Liver involvement includes elevation of transaminases, steatosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and steatohepatitis. Portal hypertension and cirrhosis can lead to hepatic encephalopathy and life-threatening esophageal varices. Pulmonary dysfunction and severe renal disease may also develop. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) can occur as early as the late teens.
Alexander's disease
MedGen UID:
78724
Concept ID:
C0270726
Disease or Syndrome
Alexander disease is a progressive disorder of cerebral white matter that predominantly affects infants and children and has variable life expectancy. The later-onset forms present with a slower clinical course. The infantile form comprises about 42% of affected individuals, the juvenile form about 22%, and the adult form about 33%. A neonatal form is also recognized. The neonatal form leads to severe disability or death within two years. Characteristics include seizures, hydrocephalus, severe motor and intellectual disability, and elevated CSF protein concentration. MRI shows severe white matter abnormalities with involvement of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The infantile form presents in the first two years of life, typically with progressive psychomotor retardation with loss of developmental milestones, megalencephaly, frontal bossing, and seizures. Other findings include hyperreflexia and pyramidal signs, ataxia, and occasional hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis. Affected children survive weeks to several years. The juvenile form usually presents between ages four and ten years, occasionally in the mid-teens. Findings can include bulbar/pseudobulbar signs, ataxia, gradual loss of intellectual function, seizures, normocephaly or megalencephaly, and breathing problems. Survival ranges from the early teens to the 20s-30s. The adult form is the most variable.
Idiopathic livedo reticularis with systemic involvement
MedGen UID:
76449
Concept ID:
C0282492
Disease or Syndrome
Sneddon syndrome is a noninflammatory arteriopathy characterized by onset of livedo reticularis in the second decade and onset of cerebrovascular disease in early adulthood (summary by Bras et al., 2014). Livedo reticularis occurs also with polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, and central thrombocythemia, any one of which may be accompanied by cerebrovascular accidents (Bruyn et al., 1987).
Diabetes-deafness syndrome maternally transmitted
MedGen UID:
90979
Concept ID:
C0342289
Congenital Abnormality
Maternally inherited diabetes-deafness syndrome (MIDD) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by onset of sensorineural hearing loss and diabetes in adulthood. Some patients may have additional features observed in mitochondrial disorders, including pigmentary retinopathy, ptosis, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, renal problems, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (Ballinger et al., 1992; Reardon et al., 1992; Guillausseau et al., 2001). The association of diabetes and deafness is observed with Wolfram syndrome (see 222300), Rogers syndrome (249270), and Herrmann syndrome (172500), but all 3 of these disorders have other clinical manifestations.
Trimethylaminuria
MedGen UID:
83350
Concept ID:
C0342739
Disease or Syndrome
Trimethylaminuria is characterized by a fishy odor resembling that of rotten or decaying fish that results from excess excretion of trimethylamine in the urine, breath, sweat, and reproductive fluids. No physical symptoms are associated with trimethylaminuria. Affected individuals appear normal and healthy; however, the unpleasant odor often results in social and psychological problems. Symptoms are usually present from birth and may worsen during puberty. In females, symptoms are more severe just before and during menstruation, after taking oral contraceptives, and around the time of menopause.
Phosphate transport defect
MedGen UID:
87455
Concept ID:
C0342749
Disease or Syndrome
Glutaryl-CoA oxidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
87464
Concept ID:
C0342873
Pathologic Function
Congenital livedo reticularis
MedGen UID:
83381
Concept ID:
C0345419
Congenital Abnormality
Somatotroph adenoma
MedGen UID:
91097
Concept ID:
C0346302
Neoplastic Process
AIP-related isolated familial pituitary adenoma (AIP-related FIPA) is defined as the presence of an AIP germline pathogenic variant in an individual with a pituitary adenoma (regardless of family history). The most commonly occurring pituitary adenomas in this disorder are growth hormone-secreting adenomas (somatotropinoma), followed by prolactin-secreting adenomas (prolactinoma), growth hormone and prolactin co-secreting adenomas (somatomammotropinoma), and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). Rarely TSH- or ACTH-secreting adenomas (thyrotropinoma and corticotropinoma) are observed. Clinical findings result from excess hormone secretion, lack of hormone secretion, and/or mass effects (e.g., headaches, visual field loss). Within the same family, pituitary adenomas can be of the same or different type. Age of onset in AIP-related FIPA is around 20-24 years (age range: 6-66 years).
Epstein syndrome
MedGen UID:
97986
Concept ID:
C0398641
Disease or Syndrome
MYH9-related disorders (MYH9RD) are characterized by large platelets (i.e., >20% of platelets >4 µm in diameter) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150x10(9)/L), both of which are present from birth. MYH9RD is variably associated with young-adult onset of progressive high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, presenile cataract, and renal disease manifesting initially as glomerulonephritis. Before identification of the gene in which mutation is causative, MYH9, individuals with MYH9RD were diagnosed as having Epstein syndrome, Fechtner syndrome, May-Hegglin anomaly, or Sebastian syndrome based on the combination of different clinical findings at the time of diagnosis. However, the realization that they all have MYH9 mutations and that their clinical picture often worsens throughout life as a result of late onset of non-hematologic manifestations has led the four conditions to be regarded as one disorder, now known as MYH9RD.
Progressive hereditary glomerulonephritis without deafness
MedGen UID:
98012
Concept ID:
C0403443
Disease or Syndrome
Nail patella-like renal disease
MedGen UID:
140789
Concept ID:
C0403548
Disease or Syndrome
Glomerulopathy with giant fibrillar deposits
MedGen UID:
98017
Concept ID:
C0403557
Disease or Syndrome
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits (GFND) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension that leads to end-stage renal failure in the second to fifth decade of life. Pathologic examination shows enlarged glomeruli with mesangial and subendothelial fibrillary deposits that show strong immunoreactivity to fibronectin (FN1; 135600) (Castelletti et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Glomerulopathy with Fibronectin Deposits The GFND1 locus maps to chromosome 1q32. See also GFND2 (601894), which is caused by mutation in the FN1 gene (135600) on chromosome 2q34.
Deletion of short arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96604
Concept ID:
C0432442
Disease or Syndrome
Deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18. It is one of the most fre quently occurring chromosomal aberrations with minimal abnormalities visible at birth, which become more apparent at the age of three years. The phenotype is marked mainly by holoprosencephaly, brachycephaly, broad facies, blepharoptosis, downturned corners of the mouth, tooth abnormalities, broad neck with low posterior hairline, funnel chest, enlarged labia majora, hand abnormalities, mental retardation ranging from mild to severe, and other malformations. The phenotype varies from case to case, frequently reflecting the length and type of deletion: del(18p) mosaicism is associated with abnormalities which are similar to those in del(18p) and include microphthalmia and cataract and cyclopia may occur in del(18p) in mosaicism with dup(18p).
Cockayne syndrome type C
MedGen UID:
196713
Concept ID:
C0751037
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by short stature and an appearance of premature aging. Features of this disorder include a failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive), abnormally small head size (microcephaly), and impaired development of the nervous system. Affected individuals have an extreme sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity), and even a small amount of sun exposure can cause a sunburn. Other possible signs and symptoms include hearing loss, eye abnormalities, severe tooth decay, bone abnormalities, and changes in the brain that can be seen on brain scans. Cockayne syndrome can be divided into subtypes, which are distinguished by the severity and age of onset of symptoms. Classical, or type I, Cockayne syndrome is characterized by an onset of symptoms in early childhood (usually after age 1 year). Type II Cockayne syndrome has much more severe symptoms that are apparent at birth (congenital). Type II Cockayne syndrome is sometimes called cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II. Type III Cockayne syndrome has the mildest symptoms of the three types and appears later in childhood.
Cockayne syndrome, type B
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or “moderate” form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome (COFS) or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II; CS type III, a milder form; Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS). CS type I (moderate CS) is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II (severe CS or early-onset CS) is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age seven years. CS type III (mild CS or late-onset CS) is characterized by essentially normal growth and cognitive development or by late onset. Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS) includes facial freckling and early skin cancers typical of XP and some features typical of CS, including intellectual disability, spasticity, short stature, and hypogonadism. XP-CS does not include skeletal involvement, the facial phenotype of CS, or CNS dysmyelination and calcifications.
Cockayne syndrome type A
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or “moderate” form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome (COFS) or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II; CS type III, a milder form; Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS). CS type I (moderate CS) is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II (severe CS or early-onset CS) is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age seven years. CS type III (mild CS or late-onset CS) is characterized by essentially normal growth and cognitive development or by late onset. Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS) includes facial freckling and early skin cancers typical of XP and some features typical of CS, including intellectual disability, spasticity, short stature, and hypogonadism. XP-CS does not include skeletal involvement, the facial phenotype of CS, or CNS dysmyelination and calcifications.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
MedGen UID:
156019
Concept ID:
C0752166
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, complex female genitourinary malformations, and renal abnormalities. The visual prognosis for children with BBS is poor. Night blindness is usually evident by age seven to eight years; the mean age of legal blindness is 15.5 years. Birth weight is usually normal, but significant weight gain begins within the first year and becomes a lifelong issue for most individuals. A majority of individuals have significant learning difficulties; a minority have severe impairment on IQ testing. Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, dysmorphic facial features, including microcephaly, midface hypoplasia, prognathism, and blepharophimosis, as well as typical skeletal anomalies, including short stature, square body shape, broad ribs, iliac hypoplasia, brachydactyly, flattened vertebrae, and thickened calvaria. Other features, such as congenital heart disease, may also occur. All reported cases have been sporadic (summary by Bachmann-Gagescu et al., 2011).
21-hydroxylase deficiency
MedGen UID:
468578
Concept ID:
C0852654
Disease or Syndrome
21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a family of autosomal recessive disorders involving impaired synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal cortex. In 21-OHD CAH, excessive adrenal androgen biosynthesis results in virilization in all individuals and salt wasting in some individuals. A classic form with severe enzyme deficiency and prenatal onset of virilization is distinguished from a non-classic form with mild enzyme deficiency and postnatal onset. The classic form is further divided into the simple virilizing form (~25% of affected individuals) and the salt-wasting form, in which aldosterone production is inadequate (=75% of individuals). Newborns with salt-wasting 21-OHD CAH are at risk for life-threatening salt-wasting crises. Individuals with the non-classic form of 21-OHD CAH present postnatally with signs of hyperandrogenism; females with the non-classic form are not virilized at birth.
Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia
MedGen UID:
164078
Concept ID:
C0877024
Congenital Abnormality
Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) resulting in short stature, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. Radiographic manifestations of SED include ovoid and mildly flattened vertebral bodies, small deformed capital femoral epiphyses, and shallow dysplastic acetabular fossae. Adult height is 136-157 cm for men and 98.5-143 cm for women. Nearly all affected individuals have progressive steroid-resistant nephropathy, usually developing within five years of the diagnosis of growth failure and terminating with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The majority of tested individuals have T-cell deficiency and associated risk for opportunistic infection, a common cause of death. SIOD involves a spectrum that ranges from an infantile or severe early-onset form with death early in life to a juvenile or milder later-onset form with survival into adulthood if renal disease is appropriately treated.
Drash syndrome
MedGen UID:
181980
Concept ID:
C0950121
Disease or Syndrome
Denys-Drash syndrome is a condition that affects the kidneys and genitalia. Denys-Drash syndrome is characterized by kidney disease that begins within the first few months of life. Affected individuals have a condition called diffuse glomerulosclerosis, in which scar tissue forms throughout glomeruli, which are the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste from blood. In people with Denys-Drash syndrome, this condition often leads to kidney failure in childhood. People with Denys-Drash syndrome have an estimated 90 percent chance of developing a rare form of kidney cancer known as Wilms tumor. Affected individuals may develop multiple tumors in one or both kidneys. Although males with Denys-Drash syndrome have the typical male chromosome pattern (46,XY), they have gonadal dysgenesis, in which external genitalia do not look clearly male or clearly female (ambiguous genitalia) or the genitalia appear completely female. The testes of affected males are undescended, which means they are abnormally located in the pelvis, abdomen, or groin. As a result, males with Denys-Drash are typically unable to have biological children (infertile). Affected females usually have normal genitalia and have only the kidney features of the condition. Because they do not have all the features of the condition, females are usually given the diagnosis of isolated nephrotic syndrome.
Familial hyperaldosteronism type 1
MedGen UID:
224694
Concept ID:
C1260386
Disease or Syndrome
Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, variable hyperaldosteronism, and abnormal adrenal steroid production, including 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol (Lifton et al., 1992). There is significant phenotypic heterogeneity, and some individuals never develop hypertension (Stowasser et al., 2000). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Hyperaldosteronism Familial hyperaldosteronism type II (605635) has been mapped to chromosome 7p22. Familial hyperaldosteronism type III (613677) is caused by mutation in the KCNJ5 gene (600734) on chromosome 11q24.
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
266127
Concept ID:
C1272305
Disease or Syndrome
CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is characterized by mid-adult onset of recurrent ischemic stroke, cognitive decline progressing to dementia, a history of migraine with aura, mood disturbance, apathy, and diffuse white matter lesions and subcortical infarcts on neuroimaging.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism, type 2
MedGen UID:
259599
Concept ID:
C1449844
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is characterized by hypertension and hyperkalemia despite normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Other associated findings in both children and adults include hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis, and suppressed plasma renin levels. Aldosterone levels are variable, but are relatively low given the degree of hyperkalemia (elevated serum potassium is a potent stimulus for aldosterone secretion). Hypercalciuria is well described.
Oral-facial-digital syndrome
MedGen UID:
307142
Concept ID:
C1510460
Disease or Syndrome
Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFD1) is associated with dysfunction of primary cilia and is characterized by the following abnormalities: Oral (lobed tongue, hamartomas or lipomas of the tongue, cleft of the hard or soft palate, accessory gingival frenulae, hypodontia, and other dental abnormalities). Facial (widely spaced eyes or telecanthus, hypoplasia of the alae nasi, median cleft or pseudocleft upper lip, micrognathia) . Digital (brachydactyly, syndactyly of varying degrees, and clinodactyly of the fifth finger; duplicated hallux [great toe]; preaxial or postaxial polydactyly of the hands). Brain (intracerebral cysts, corpus callosum agenesis, cerebellar agenesis with or without Dandy-Walker malformation) . Kidney (polycystic kidney disease). As many as 50% of individuals with OFD1 have some degree of intellectual disability, which is usually mild. Almost all affected individuals are female. However, males with OFD1 have been described, mostly as malformed fetuses delivered by women with OFD1.
Alport syndrome, X-linked recessive
MedGen UID:
292688
Concept ID:
C1567742
Disease or Syndrome
Alport syndrome (AS) is characterized by renal, cochlear, and ocular involvement. Renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with X-linked (XL) AS, and in all males and females with autosomal recessive (AR) AS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) is characterized by persistent microscopic hematuria often first observed in childhood; progressive renal involvement and extrarenal abnormalities are rare.
Alport syndrome, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
339210
Concept ID:
C1567743
Disease or Syndrome
Alport syndrome (AS) is characterized by renal, cochlear, and ocular involvement. Renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with X-linked (XL) AS, and in all males and females with autosomal recessive (AR) AS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) is characterized by persistent microscopic hematuria often first observed in childhood; progressive renal involvement and extrarenal abnormalities are rare.
Alport syndrome, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
292689
Concept ID:
C1567744
Disease or Syndrome
Alport syndrome (AS) is characterized by renal, cochlear, and ocular involvement. Renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with X-linked (XL) AS, and in all males and females with autosomal recessive (AR) AS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) is characterized by persistent microscopic hematuria often first observed in childhood; progressive renal involvement and extrarenal abnormalities are rare.
Renal adysplasia
MedGen UID:
301437
Concept ID:
C1619700
Disease or Syndrome
Renal hypodysplasia/aplasia belongs to a group of perinatally lethal renal diseases, including bilateral renal aplasia, unilateral renal agenesis with contralateral dysplasia (URA/RD), and severe obstructive uropathy. Renal aplasia falls at the most severe end of the spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; 610805), and usually results in death in utero or in the perinatal period. Families have been documented in which bilateral renal agenesis or aplasia coexists with unilateral renal aplasia, renal dysplasia, or renal aplasia with renal dysplasia, suggesting that these conditions may belong to a pathogenic continuum or phenotypic spectrum (summary by Joss et al., 2003; Humbert et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Renal Hypodysplasia/Aplasia RHDA2 (615721) is caused by mutation in the FGF20 gene (605558) on chromosome 8p22.
Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 1
MedGen UID:
318591
Concept ID:
C1720859
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy type 1 (FPLD1), or Kobberling-type lipodystrophy, is characterized by loss of adipose tissue confined to the extremities, with normal or increased distribution of fat on the face, neck, and trunk (Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), see 151660.
Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 2
MedGen UID:
354526
Concept ID:
C1720860
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution beginning in late childhood or early adult life. Affected individuals gradually lose fat from the upper and lower extremities and the gluteal and truncal regions, resulting in a muscular appearance with prominent superficial veins. In some patients, adipose tissue accumulates on the face and neck, causing a double chin, fat neck, or cushingoid appearance. Metabolic abnormalities include insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosis nigricans and hypertriglyceridemia; hirsutism and menstrual abnormalities occur infrequently. Familial partial lipodystrophy may also be referred to as lipoatrophic diabetes mellitus, but the essential feature is loss of subcutaneous fat (review by Garg, 2004). The disorder may be misdiagnosed as Cushing disease (see 219080) (Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986; Garg, 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Familial partial lipodystrophy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Types 1 and 2 were originally described as clinical subtypes: type 1 (FPLD1; 608600), characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat confined to the limbs (Kobberling et al., 1975), and FPLD2, characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat from the limbs and trunk (Dunnigan et al., 1974; Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986). No genetic basis for FPLD1 has yet been delineated. FPLD3 (604367) is caused by mutation in the PPARG gene (601487) on chromosome 3p25; FPLD4 (613877) is caused by mutation in the PLIN1 gene (170290) on chromosome 15q26; FPLD5 (615238) is caused by mutation in the CIDEC gene (612120) on chromosome 3p25; and FPLD6 (615980) is caused by mutation in the LIPe gene (151750) on chromosome 19q13.
Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 3
MedGen UID:
328393
Concept ID:
C1720861
Disease or Syndrome
This type can be caused by mutation in the gene encoding PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA.
Osteochondrodysplasia, rhizomelic, with callosal agenesis, thrombocytopenia, hydrocephalus, and hypertension
MedGen UID:
322254
Concept ID:
C1833688
Disease or Syndrome
Pierson syndrome
MedGen UID:
373199
Concept ID:
C1836876
Disease or Syndrome
Pierson syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and distinct ocular abnormalities, including microcoria and hypoplasia of the ciliary and pupillary muscles, as well as other anomalies. Many patients die early, and those who survive tend to show neurodevelopmental delay and visual loss (summary by Zenker et al., 2004). Mutations in the LAMB2 gene also cause nephrotic syndrome type 5 with or without mild ocular anomalies (NPHS5; 614199).
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2
MedGen UID:
324960
Concept ID:
C1838163
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by the presence of multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that lack intervening capillaries and result in direct connections between arteries and veins. Although HHT is a developmental disorder and infants are occasionally severely affected, in most people the features are age-dependent and the diagnosis not suspected until adolescence or later. Small AVMs (or telangiectases) close to the surface of the skin and mucous membranes often rupture and bleed after slight trauma. The most common clinical manifestation is spontaneous and recurrent nosebleeds (epistaxis) beginning on average at age 12 years. Approximately 25% of individuals with HHT have GI bleeding, which most commonly begins after age 50 years. Large AVMs often cause symptoms when they occur in the brain, liver, or lungs; complications from bleeding or shunting may be sudden and catastrophic.
Sacral defect with anterior meningocele
MedGen UID:
325455
Concept ID:
C1838568
Disease or Syndrome
Sacral defect with anterior meningocele (SDAM) is a form of caudal dysgenesis. It is present at birth and becomes symptomatic later in life, usually because of obstructive labor in females, chronic constipation, or meningitis. Inheritance is autosomal dominant (Chatkupt et al., 1994). Welch and Aterman (1984) gave a population frequency of 0.14%. Caudal dysgenesis syndrome and caudal regression syndrome are broad terms that refer to a heterogeneous constellation of congenital caudal anomalies affecting the caudal spine and spinal cord, the hindgut, the urogenital system, and the lower limbs. Approximately 15 to 25% of mothers of children with caudal dysgenesis have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (222100) (Lynch et al., 2000). See also Currarino syndrome (176450), a similar disorder caused by mutation in the HLXB9 gene (142994) on chromosome 7q36. Currarino syndrome classically comprises the triad of hemisacrum, anorectal malformation, and presacral mass. However, Currarino syndrome also shows phenotypic variability: Lynch et al. (2000) stated that there is variable expressivity of clinical features and that some patients with Currarino syndrome are asymptomatic. Kochling et al. (2001) found the complete triad of Currarino syndrome in only 8 of 23 patients with mutations in the HLXB9 gene, These reports suggest that some patients previously reported as having forms of sacral agenesis, including SDAM, may have had Currarino syndrome and vice versa. See also spina bifida (182940), which can be seen in some patients with sacral agenesis or caudal regression syndrome and may be etiologically related.
Torticollis keloids cryptorchidism renal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
326819
Concept ID:
C1839129
Disease or Syndrome
Fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1-related disorders include fragile X syndrome, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function mutation and is nearly always characterized by moderate intellectual disability in affected males and mild intellectual disability in affected females. Because FMR1 mutations are complex alterations involving non-classic gene-disrupting alterations (trinucleotide repeat expansion) and abnormal gene methylation, affected individuals occasionally have an atypical presentation with an IQ above 70, the traditional demarcation denoting intellectual disability (previously referred to as mental retardation). Males with an FMR1 full mutation accompanied by aberrant methylation may have a characteristic appearance (large head, long face, prominent forehead and chin, protruding ears), connective tissue findings (joint laxity), and large testes after puberty. Behavioral abnormalities, sometimes including autism spectrum disorder, are common. FXTAS occurs in males (and some females) who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor. FMR1-related POI (age at cessation of menses <40 years) occurs in approximately 20% of females who have an FMR1 premutation.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2B
MedGen UID:
374457
Concept ID:
C1840390
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is characterized by hypertension and hyperkalemia despite normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Other associated findings in both children and adults include hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis, and suppressed plasma renin levels. Aldosterone levels are variable, but are relatively low given the degree of hyperkalemia (elevated serum potassium is a potent stimulus for aldosterone secretion). Hypercalciuria is well described.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2C
MedGen UID:
327089
Concept ID:
C1840391
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is characterized by hypertension and hyperkalemia despite normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Other associated findings in both children and adults include hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis, and suppressed plasma renin levels. Aldosterone levels are variable, but are relatively low given the degree of hyperkalemia (elevated serum potassium is a potent stimulus for aldosterone secretion). Hypercalciuria is well described.
GCCR DEFICIENCY
MedGen UID:
331181
Concept ID:
C1841968
Disease or Syndrome
GCR DEFICIENCY
MedGen UID:
331182
Concept ID:
C1841969
Disease or Syndrome
GRL DEFICIENCY
MedGen UID:
333959
Concept ID:
C1841970
Disease or Syndrome
GLUCOCORTICOID RESISTANCE
MedGen UID:
374832
Concept ID:
C1841971
Disease or Syndrome
Glucocorticoid Receptor Deficiency
MedGen UID:
333960
Concept ID:
C1841972
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudohermaphroditism, female, with hypokalemia, due to glucocorticoid resistance
MedGen UID:
330731
Concept ID:
C1841973
Disease or Syndrome
Body composition, beneficial
MedGen UID:
374833
Concept ID:
C1841982
Disease or Syndrome
Glomerulonephritis with sparse hair and telangiectases
MedGen UID:
374835
Concept ID:
C1841989
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia-renal defect syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by these 4 features, which begin in early childhood and are progressive (summary by Moalem et al., 2015).
Coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant, 1
MedGen UID:
330802
Concept ID:
C1842247
Disease or Syndrome
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its most important complication, acute myocardial infarction (MI), are leading causes of death and disability in the developed world. Multiple risk factors for CAD/MI have been identified, including family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, smoking, and diabetes. Several genomewide scans of affected sib pairs have identified susceptibility loci for CAD, e.g., 607339 and 300464.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 3, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
335850
Concept ID:
C1842982
Finding
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity associated clinically with proteinuria, the nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), and progressive loss of renal function. It is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Meyrier, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Vascular hyalinosis
MedGen UID:
376398
Concept ID:
C1848590
Disease or Syndrome
Retinohepatoendocrinologic syndrome
MedGen UID:
340315
Concept ID:
C1849399
Disease or Syndrome
Osteodysplasia, familial, Anderson type
MedGen UID:
337990
Concept ID:
C1850186
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrosis deafness urinary tract digital malformation
MedGen UID:
340568
Concept ID:
C1850552
Disease or Syndrome
Familial erythrocytosis, 1
MedGen UID:
343583
Concept ID:
C1851490
Disease or Syndrome
Familial erythrocytosis-1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased serum red blood cell mass and hemoglobin concentration, hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to EPO, and low serum levels of EPO. There is no increase in platelets or leukocytes and the disorder does not progress to leukemia (Kralovics et al., 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Erythrocytosis See also ECYT2 (263400), caused by mutation in the VHL gene (608537) on chromosome 3p25; ECYT3 (609820), caused by mutation in the EGLN1 gene (606425) on chromosome 1q42; and ECYT4 (611783), caused by mutation in the EPAS1 gene (603349) on chromosome 2p. Erythrocytosis may also be caused by somatic mutation in the JAK2 (147796) or the SH2B3 (605093) gene on chromosome 9p24 and 12q24, respectively. For a review of the genetics of congenital erythrocytosis, see Bento et al. (2014).
Cutis Gyrata syndrome of Beare and Stevenson
MedGen UID:
377668
Concept ID:
C1852406
Congenital Abnormality
The eight disorders comprising the FGFR-related craniosynostosis spectrum are Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome (isolated coronal synostosis caused by the p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3). Muenke syndrome and FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis are characterized only by uni- or bicoronal craniosynostosis; the remainder are characterized by bicoronal craniosynostosis or cloverleaf skull, distinctive facial features, and variable hand and foot findings.
Cryoglobulinemia, familial mixed
MedGen UID:
343814
Concept ID:
C1852456
Disease or Syndrome
Corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency
MedGen UID:
343831
Concept ID:
C1852529
Disease or Syndrome
Corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency is a condition with subtle signs and symptoms, the most frequent being extreme tiredness (fatigue), especially after physical exertion. Many people with this condition have unusually low blood pressure (hypotension). Some affected individuals have a fatty liver or experience chronic pain, particularly in their muscles. These features vary among affected individuals, even those within the same family. Many people with corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency have only one or two of these features; others have no signs and symptoms of the disorder and are only diagnosed after a relative is found to be affected. Some people with corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency also have a condition called chronic fatigue syndrome. The features of chronic fatigue syndrome are prolonged fatigue that interferes with daily activities, as well as general symptoms, such as sore throat or headaches.
Hypertension, early-onset, autosomal dominant, with severe exacerbation in pregnancy
MedGen UID:
343170
Concept ID:
C1854631
Disease or Syndrome
Nephronophthisis 1
MedGen UID:
343406
Concept ID:
C1855681
Disease or Syndrome
Nephronophthisis is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease that leads to renal failure in childhood or adolescence. It is the most frequent genetic cause of renal failure in children. NPHP may be combined with extrarenal manifestations, such as liver fibrosis, situs inversus, or cardiac malformations. When nephronophthisis is combined with retinitis pigmentosa, the disorder is known as Senior-Loken syndrome (SLSN1; 266900); when it is combined with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, the disorder is known as Joubert syndrome (JBTS1; 213300); and when it is combined with multiple developmental and neurologic abnormalities, the disorder is often known as Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS1; 249000). Because most NPHP gene products localize to the cilium or its associated structures, nephronophthisis and the related syndromes have been termed 'ciliopathies' (summary by Hoff et al., 2013). Clinical features of familial juvenile nephronophthisis include anemia, polyuria, polydipsia, isosthenuria, and death in uremia. Simms et al. (2009) provided a detailed review of nephronophthisis, including a discussion of clinical features and molecular genetics. Genetic Heterogeneity of Nephronophthisis NPHP2 (602088) is caused by mutation in the INVS gene (243305) on chromosome 9q31; NPHP3 (604387) is caused by mutation in the NPHP3 gene (608002) on chromosome 3q22; NPHP4 (606966) is caused by mutation in the NPHP4 gene (607215) on chromosome 1p36; NPHP7 (611498) is caused by mutation in the GLIS2 gene (608539) on chromosome 16p13; NPHP9 (613824) is caused by mutation in the NEK8 gene (609799) on chromosome 17q11; NPHP11 (613550) is caused by mutation in the TMEM67 gene (609884) on chromosome 8q22; NPHP12 (613820) is caused by mutation in the TTC21B gene (612014) on chromosome 2q24; NPHP13 (614377) is caused by mutation in the WDR19 gene (608151) on chromosome 4p14; NPHP14 (614844) is caused by mutation in the ZNF423 gene (604557) on chromosome 16; NPHP15 (614845) is caused by mutation in the CEP164 gene (614848) on chromosome 11q; NPHP16 (615382) is caused by mutation in the ANKS6 gene (615370) on chromosome 9q22; NPHP18 (615862) is caused by mutation in the CEP83 gene (615847) on chromosome 12q22; and NPHP19 (616217) is caused by mutation in the DCDC2 gene (605755) on chromosome 6p22.
Cushing's syndrome
MedGen UID:
347456
Concept ID:
C1857451
Disease or Syndrome
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is an endogenous form of adrenal Cushing syndrome characterized by multiple bilateral adrenocortical nodules that cause a striking enlargement of the adrenal glands. Although some familial cases have been reported, the vast majority of AIMAH cases are sporadic. Patients typically present in the fifth and sixth decades of life, approximately 10 years later than most patients with other causes of Cushing syndrome (Swain et al., 1998; Christopoulos et al., 2005). Approximately 10 to 15% of adrenal Cushing syndrome is due to primary bilateral ACTH-independent adrenocortical pathology. The 2 main subtypes are AIMAH and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, see 610489), which is often a component of the Carney complex (160980) and associated with mutations in the PRKAR1A gene (188830) on chromosome 17q23-q24. AIMAH is rare, representing less than 1% of endogenous causes of Cushing syndrome (Swain et al., 1998; Christopoulos et al., 2005). See also ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (615830) due to somatic mutation in the PRKACA gene (601639). Cushing 'disease' (219090) is an ACTH-dependent disorder caused in most cases by pituitary adenomas that secrete excessive ACTH. Genetic Heterogeneity of ACTH-Independent Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia AIMAH2 (615954) is caused by germline mutation of 1 allele of the ARMC5 gene (615549) coupled with a somatic mutation in the other allele.
Carney triad
MedGen UID:
388099
Concept ID:
C1858592
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare disorder marked by tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (usually the stomach), tumors that form in embryonic nervous tissue in the head, neck, and torso, and tumors that form in cartilage in the lungs. Sometimes tumors also form in the adrenal glands and esophagus. Carney triad is most common in young females.
Feigenbaum Bergeron Richardson syndrome
MedGen UID:
349198
Concept ID:
C1859596
Disease or Syndrome
Arteriosclerosis, severe juvenile
MedGen UID:
395330
Concept ID:
C1859725
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome
MedGen UID:
347942
Concept ID:
C1859726
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is characterized by: Severe and widespread arterial tortuosity of the aorta and middle-sized arteries (with an increased risk of aneurysms and dissections) and focal and widespread stenosis which can involve the aorta and/or pulmonary arteries; ??The risk for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation and the abdominal arteries is increased. In addition, large veins may be dilated and valvular regurgitation and mitral valve prolapse can occur. Craniofacial involvement with characteristic facies and high palate with dental crowding; Soft/doughy skin and other evidence of a generalized connective tissue disorder including skeletal findings (scoliosis, pectus excavatum/carinatum, joint laxity, knee/elbow contractures, arachnodactyly, camptodactyly); inguinal/abdominal wall hernia; sliding hiatal or diaphragmatic hernia; hypotonia; and ocular involvement (myopia, keratoconus).
Arterial calcification of infancy
MedGen UID:
395331
Concept ID:
C1859727
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is characterized by infantile onset of widespread arterial calcification and/or narrowing of large- and medium-sized vessels resulting in cardiovascular findings (which can include heart failure, respiratory distress, edema, cyanosis, hypertension, and/or cardiomegaly). Additional findings can include extravascular calcifications (particularly periarticular), typical skin and retinal manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), hearing loss, and development of rickets after infancy. While mortality in infancy is high, survival into the second and third decade has been reported.
Angiomatosis, diffuse corticomeningeal, of Divry and Van Bogaert
MedGen UID:
347234
Concept ID:
C1859783
Disease or Syndrome
Blau syndrome
MedGen UID:
348835
Concept ID:
C1861303
Disease or Syndrome
Blau syndrome is an inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the skin, joints, and eyes. Signs and symptoms begin in childhood, usually before age 4. A form of skin inflammation called granulomatous dermatitis is typically the earliest sign of Blau syndrome. This skin condition causes a persistent rash that can be scaly or involve hard lumps (nodules) that can be felt under the skin. The rash is usually found on the torso, arms, and legs. Arthritis is another common feature of Blau syndrome. In affected individuals, arthritis is characterized by inflammation of the lining of joints (the synovium). This inflammation, known as synovitis, is associated with swelling and joint pain. Synovitis usually begins in the joints of the hands, feet, wrists, and ankles. As the condition worsens, it can restrict movement by decreasing the range of motion in many joints. Most people with Blau syndrome also develop uveitis, which is swelling and inflammation of the middle layer of the eye (the uvea). The uvea includes the colored portion of the eye (the iris) and related tissues that underlie the white part of the eye (the sclera). Uveitis can cause eye irritation and pain, increased sensitivity to bright light (photophobia), and blurred vision. Other structures in the eye can also become inflamed, including the outermost protective layer of the eye (the conjunctiva), the tear glands, the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye (the retina), and the nerve that carries information from the eye to the brain (the optic nerve). Inflammation of any of these structures can lead to severe vision impairment or blindness. Less commonly, Blau syndrome can affect other parts of the body, including the liver, kidneys, brain, blood vessels, lungs, and heart. Inflammation involving these organs and tissues can cause life-threatening complications.
Brachydactyly with hypertension
MedGen UID:
349445
Concept ID:
C1862170
Disease or Syndrome
The hypertension and brachydactyly syndrome is characterized by brachydactyly type E, severe salt-independent but age-dependent hypertension, an increased fibroblast growth rate, neurovascular contact at the rostral-ventrolateral medulla, altered baroreflex blood pressure regulation, and death from stroke before age 50 years when untreated (summary by Maass et al., 2015).
Arteritis, familial granulomatous, with juvenile polyarthritis
MedGen UID:
349529
Concept ID:
C1862510
Disease or Syndrome
Pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, primary, 1
MedGen UID:
400627
Concept ID:
C1864846
Disease or Syndrome
Primary pigmented micronodular adrenocortical disease is a form of ACTH-independent adrenal hyperplasia resulting in Cushing syndrome. It is usually seen as a manifestation of the Carney complex (CNC1; 160980), a multiple neoplasia syndrome. However, PPNAD can also occur in isolation (Groussin et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Primary Pigmented Micronodular Adrenocortical Disease See also PPNAD2 (610475), caused by mutation in the PDE11A gene (604961) on chromosome 2q31; PPNAD3 (614190), caused by mutation in the PDE8B gene (603390) on chromosome 5q13; and PPNAD4 (615830), caused by a duplication on chromosome 19p13 that includes the PRKACA gene (601639).
Pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, primary, 2
MedGen UID:
355843
Concept ID:
C1864851
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial occlusive disease, progressive, with hypertension, heart defects, bone fragility, and brachysyndactyly
MedGen UID:
355427
Concept ID:
C1865267
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile nephronophthisis
MedGen UID:
355574
Concept ID:
C1865872
Disease or Syndrome
Nephronophthisis is a disorder that affects the kidneys. It is characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) that impairs kidney function. These abnormalities lead to increased urine production (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), general weakness, and extreme tiredness (fatigue). In addition, affected individuals develop fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys, usually in an area known as the corticomedullary region. Another feature of nephronophthisis is a shortage of red blood cells, a condition known as anemia. Nephronophthisis eventually leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a life-threatening failure of kidney function that occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to filter fluids and waste products from the body effectively. Nephronophthisis can be classified by the approximate age at which ESRD begins: around age 1 (infantile), around age 13 (juvenile), and around age 19 (adolescent). About 85 percent of all cases of nephronophthisis are isolated, which means they occur without other signs and symptoms. Some people with nephronophthisis have additional features, which can include liver fibrosis, heart abnormalities, or mirror image reversal of the position of one or more organs inside the body (situs inversus). Nephronophthisis can occur as part of separate syndromes that affect other areas of the body; these are often referred to as nephronophthisis-associated ciliopathies. For example, Senior-Løken syndrome is characterized by the combination of nephronophthisis and a breakdown of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retinal degeneration); Joubert syndrome affects many parts of the body, causing neurological problems and other features, which can include nephronophthisis.
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits 2
MedGen UID:
356149
Concept ID:
C1866075
Disease or Syndrome
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension that leads to end-stage renal failure in the second to fifth decade of life. Pathologic examination shows enlarged glomeruli with mesangial and subendothelial fibrillary deposits that show strong immunoreactivity to fibronectin (Castelletti et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GFND, see 137950.
Spastic paraplegia, sensorineural deafness, mental retardation, and progressive nephropathy
MedGen UID:
355816
Concept ID:
C1866853
Disease or Syndrome
Scalp ear nipple syndrome
MedGen UID:
357183
Concept ID:
C1867020
Disease or Syndrome
Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp, breast anomalies that range from hypothelia or athelia to amastia, and minor anomalies of the external ears. Less frequent clinical characteristics include nail dystrophy, dental anomalies, cutaneous syndactyly of the digits, and renal malformations. Penetrance appears to be high, although there is substantial variable expressivity within families (Marneros et al., 2013).
Medullary cystic kidney disease 1
MedGen UID:
358137
Concept ID:
C1868139
Disease or Syndrome
Medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 (MCKD1) is a kidney-specific disorder. It is characterized by slowly progressive tubulo-interstitial disease that leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the need for dialysis or kidney transplantation. ESRD typically occurs in adulthood but is extremely variable, occurring at any age between 20 and 70 yrs. Unlike in UMOD-associated kidney disease (medullary cystic kidney disease type 2), gout in MCKD1 is a sequela of kidney failure and not a primary manifestation of the disorder. Hypertension also appears to be a sequela of the disease, occurring after the onset of kidney failure.
XFE progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
410064
Concept ID:
C1970416
Disease or Syndrome
Coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant 2
MedGen UID:
370259
Concept ID:
C1970440
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
MedGen UID:
370358
Concept ID:
C1970827
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) superactivity is characterized by hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria and is divided into a severe phenotype with infantile or early-childhood onset and a milder phenotype with late-juvenile or early-adult onset. Variable combinations of sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, and ataxia observed in the severe type are not usually present in the mild type. In the mild type, uric acid crystalluria or a urinary stone is commonly the first clinical finding, followed later by gouty arthritis if serum urate concentration is not controlled.
Multicentric osteolysis nephropathy
MedGen UID:
436237
Concept ID:
C2674705
Disease or Syndrome
Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome is a rare skeletal disorder, usually presenting in early childhood with a clinical picture mimicking juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Progressive destruction of the carpal and tarsal bone usually occurs and other bones may also be involved. Chronic renal failure is a frequent component of the syndrome. Mental retardation and minor facial anomalies have been noted in some patients. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been documented in many families (Pai and Macpherson, 1988). See also Torg-Winchester syndrome (259600), an autosomal recessive multicentric osteolysis syndrome.
Hunter-MacDonald syndrome
MedGen UID:
383181
Concept ID:
C2677745
Disease or Syndrome
Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
412743
Concept ID:
C2749604
Finding
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure caused by platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the kidney and other organs. Typical (acquired) HUS is triggered by infectious agents such as strains of E. coli (Stx-E. coli) that produce powerful Shiga-like exotoxins, whereas atypical HUS (aHUS) can be genetic, acquired, or idiopathic (of unknown cause). Onset of atypical HUS ranges from prenatal to adulthood. Individuals with genetic atypical HUS frequently experience relapse even after complete recovery following the presenting episode. Sixty percent of genetic aHUS progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
414541
Concept ID:
C2752036
Finding
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure caused by platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the kidney and other organs. Typical (acquired) HUS is triggered by infectious agents such as strains of E. coli (Stx-E. coli) that produce powerful Shiga-like exotoxins, whereas atypical HUS (aHUS) can be genetic, acquired, or idiopathic (of unknown cause). Onset of atypical HUS ranges from prenatal to adulthood. Individuals with genetic atypical HUS frequently experience relapse even after complete recovery following the presenting episode. Sixty percent of genetic aHUS progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
442875
Concept ID:
C2752037
Finding
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure caused by platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the kidney and other organs. Typical (acquired) HUS is triggered by infectious agents such as strains of E. coli (Stx-E. coli) that produce powerful Shiga-like exotoxins, whereas atypical HUS (aHUS) can be genetic, acquired, or idiopathic (of unknown cause). Onset of atypical HUS ranges from prenatal to adulthood. Individuals with genetic atypical HUS frequently experience relapse even after complete recovery following the presenting episode. Sixty percent of genetic aHUS progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
416691
Concept ID:
C2752038
Finding
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure caused by platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the kidney and other organs. Typical (acquired) HUS is triggered by infectious agents such as strains of E. coli (Stx-E. coli) that produce powerful Shiga-like exotoxins, whereas atypical HUS (aHUS) can be genetic, acquired, or idiopathic (of unknown cause). Onset of atypical HUS ranges from prenatal to adulthood. Individuals with genetic atypical HUS frequently experience relapse even after complete recovery following the presenting episode. Sixty percent of genetic aHUS progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
414542
Concept ID:
C2752039
Finding
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure caused by platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the kidney and other organs. Typical (acquired) HUS is triggered by infectious agents such as strains of E. coli (Stx-E. coli) that produce powerful Shiga-like exotoxins, whereas atypical HUS (aHUS) can be genetic, acquired, or idiopathic (of unknown cause). Onset of atypical HUS ranges from prenatal to adulthood. Individuals with genetic atypical HUS frequently experience relapse even after complete recovery following the presenting episode. Sixty percent of genetic aHUS progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
414167
Concept ID:
C2752040
Finding
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure caused by platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the kidney and other organs. Typical (acquired) HUS is triggered by infectious agents such as strains of E. coli (Stx-E. coli) that produce powerful Shiga-like exotoxins, whereas atypical HUS (aHUS) can be genetic, acquired, or idiopathic (of unknown cause). Onset of atypical HUS ranges from prenatal to adulthood. Individuals with genetic atypical HUS frequently experience relapse even after complete recovery following the presenting episode. Sixty percent of genetic aHUS progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
MedGen UID:
424836
Concept ID:
C2936861
Disease or Syndrome
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is an autosomal recessive form of low-renin hypertension associated with low aldosterone, metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, and hypokalemia. The disorder is due to a congenital defect in 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD11B2) activity, resulting in decreased conversion of biologically active cortisol to inactive cortisone; this defect allows cortisol to act as a ligand for the mineralocorticoid receptor, resulting in sodium retention and volume expansion. There is a favorable therapeutic response to spironolactone (review by Ferrari, 2010).
Homocystinuria due to CBS deficiency
MedGen UID:
461694
Concept ID:
C3150344
Disease or Syndrome
Homocystinuria caused by cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) deficiency is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, ectopia lentis and/or severe myopia, skeletal abnormalities (excessive height and length of the limbs), and thromboembolism. Expressivity is variable for all of the clinical signs. Two phenotypic variants are recognized, B6-responsive homocystinuria and B6-non-responsive homocystinuria. B6-responsive homocystinuria is typically, but not always, milder than the non-responsive variant. In the majority of untreated affected individuals, ectopia lentis occurs by age eight years. Individuals are often tall and slender with an asthenic (‘marfanoid’) habitus and are prone to osteoporosis. Thromboembolism is the major cause of early death and morbidity. IQ in individuals with untreated homocystinuria ranges widely, from 10 to 138. In B6-responsive individuals the mean IQ is 79 versus 57 for those who are B6 non-responsive. Other features that may occur include: seizures, psychiatric problems, extrapyramidal signs (e.g., dystonia), hypopigmentation, malar flush, livedo reticularis, and pancreatitis.
Nephronophthisis-like nephropathy 1
MedGen UID:
461769
Concept ID:
C3150419
Disease or Syndrome
Nephronophthisis is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease characterized by onset of end-stage renal failure in the first 3 decades of life. The disorder is often associated with extrarenal manifestations, including liver fibrosis, retinal degeneration, and central nervous system abnormalities (summary by O'Toole et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephronophthisis, see NPHP1 (256100).
Long QT syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
462083
Concept ID:
C3150733
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the ECG and the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Syncope typically occurs during exercise and high emotions, less frequently at rest or during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal spells. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the pre-teen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQT type 7), hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQT type 8) and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Familial hyperaldosteronism type 3
MedGen UID:
462283
Concept ID:
C3150933
Disease or Syndrome
This form of hyperaldosteronism is characterized by hypertension secondary to massive adrenal mineralocorticoid production. Like patients with glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA, or FH I; 103900), patients with FH III present with childhood hypertension, elevated aldosteronism levels, and high levels of the hybrid steroids 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol. However, hypertension and aldosteronism in FH III are not reversed by administration of exogenous glucocorticoids and patients require adrenalectomy to control hypertension (Geller et al., 2008). Reviews Mulatero et al. (2013) reviewed the role of KCNJ5 in adrenal pathophysiology and provided an overview of the clinical and biochemical phenotypes resulting from KCNJ5 mutations in patients with sporadic and familial primary aldosteronism. The authors stated that the prevalence of FH III appeared to be 7% of patients with familial aldosteronism and 0.3% of all cases of primary hyperaldosteronism. In addition, they noted that the total prevalence of reported KCNJ5 mutations in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas (APAs) was 40%.
Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 4
MedGen UID:
462618
Concept ID:
C3151268
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy type 4 is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by childhood or young adult onset of loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue primarily affecting the lower limbs, insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension (summary by Gandotra et al., 2011).
Iga nephropathy 2
MedGen UID:
462728
Concept ID:
C3151378
Finding
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy 2
MedGen UID:
477791
Concept ID:
C3276161
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by calcification of the internal elastic lamina of muscular arteries and stenosis due to myointimal proliferation. GACI is often fatal within the first 6 months of life because of myocardial ischemia resulting in refractory heart failure (summary by Rutsch et al., 2003 and Cheng et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GACI, see GACI1 (208000). Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE; 264800) is an allelic disorder caused by mutation in the ABCC6 gene; it has been suggested that GACI and PXE represent 2 ends of a clinical spectrum of ectopic calcification and other organ pathologies rather than 2 distinct disorders (Nitschke et al., 2012).
Joubert syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
482396
Concept ID:
C3280766
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS) . Hypotonia. Developmental delays . Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. The designation Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) is used to describe individuals with JS who have additional findings including retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2D
MedGen UID:
483335
Concept ID:
C3469605
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hyperkalemic hypertension, also known as type II pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHAII) or Gordon syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant disease in which a net positive sodium ion balance is associated with renal potassium ion retention, resulting in hypertension, hyperkalemia, and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (summary by Louis-Dit-Picard et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Type II Pseudohypoaldosteronism For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of type II pseudohypoaldosteronism, see PHA2A (145260).
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2E
MedGen UID:
483336
Concept ID:
C3469606
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 14
MedGen UID:
815642
Concept ID:
C3809312
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial fibrillation, see ATFB1 (608583).
Primary aldosteronism, seizures, and neurologic abnormalities
MedGen UID:
815939
Concept ID:
C3809609
Disease or Syndrome
Morbid obesity and spermatogenic failure
MedGen UID:
816654
Concept ID:
C3810324
Disease or Syndrome
Moyamoya disease 6 with achalasia
MedGen UID:
816733
Concept ID:
C3810403
Disease or Syndrome
Moyamoya disease-6 with achalasia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of severe achalasia in infancy or early childhood. Most patients develop ischemic strokes and show brain imaging consistent with moyamoya disease or intracranial angiopathy. More variable vascular features include hypertension and Raynaud phenomenon (summary by Herve et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of moyamoya disease, see MYMY1 (252350).
Glucocorticoid resistance, generalized
MedGen UID:
798686
Concept ID:
CN205763
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized glucocorticoid resistance is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by increased plasma cortisol concentration and high urinary free cortisol, resistance to adrenal suppression by dexamethasone, and the absence of clinical stigmata of Cushing syndrome. The clinical expression of the disease is variable. Common features include hypoglycemia, hypertension, and metabolic alkalosis. In females, overproduction of adrenal androgens has been associated with infertility, male-pattern baldness, hirsutism, and menstrual irregularities. Other features include chronic fatigue and profound anxiety (summary by Chrousos et al., 1983; Donner et al., 2013).
SeSAME syndrome
MedGen UID:
411243
Concept ID:
C2748572
Disease or Syndrome

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Kurtz TW, Dominiczak AF, DiCarlo SE, Pravenec M, Morris RC Jr
Hypertension 2015 May;65(5):932-41. Epub 2015 Mar 9 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.05092. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25753977
Böhm M, Mahfoud F, Ukena C, Hoppe UC, Narkiewicz K, Negoita M, Ruilope L, Schlaich MP, Schmieder RE, Whitbourn R, Williams B, Zeymer U, Zirlik A, Mancia G; GSR Investigators
Hypertension 2015 Apr;65(4):766-74. Epub 2015 Feb 17 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.05010. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25691618
Donat-Vargas C, Gea A, Sayon-Orea C, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Bes-Rastrollo M
Hypertension 2015 Apr;65(4):714-21. Epub 2015 Feb 2 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04435. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25646299
Qiu M, Shen W, Song X, Ju L, Tong W, Wang H, Zheng S, Jin Y, Wu Y, Wang W, Tian J
Hypertension 2015 Mar;65(3):525-30. Epub 2015 Jan 26 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04632. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25624343
Li Y, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Bixler EO, Sun Y, Zhou J, Ren R, Li T, Tang X
Hypertension 2015 Mar;65(3):644-50. Epub 2015 Jan 26 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04604. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25624338

Diagnosis

Kurtz TW, Dominiczak AF, DiCarlo SE, Pravenec M, Morris RC Jr
Hypertension 2015 May;65(5):932-41. Epub 2015 Mar 9 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.05092. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25753977
Donat-Vargas C, Gea A, Sayon-Orea C, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Bes-Rastrollo M
Hypertension 2015 Apr;65(4):714-21. Epub 2015 Feb 2 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04435. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25646299
Li Y, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Bixler EO, Sun Y, Zhou J, Ren R, Li T, Tang X
Hypertension 2015 Mar;65(3):644-50. Epub 2015 Jan 26 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04604. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25624338
Geurts AM, Mattson DL, Liu P, Cabacungan E, Skelton MM, Kurth TM, Yang C, Endres BT, Klotz J, Liang M, Cowley AW Jr
Hypertension 2015 Feb;65(2):447-55. Epub 2014 Dec 1 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04179. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25452472Free PMC Article
Li W, Sullivan MN, Zhang S, Worker CJ, Xiong Z, Speth RC, Feng Y
Hypertension 2015 Feb;65(2):352-61. Epub 2014 Nov 24 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04458. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25421983

Therapy

Kurtz TW, Dominiczak AF, DiCarlo SE, Pravenec M, Morris RC Jr
Hypertension 2015 May;65(5):932-41. Epub 2015 Mar 9 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.05092. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25753977
Böhm M, Mahfoud F, Ukena C, Hoppe UC, Narkiewicz K, Negoita M, Ruilope L, Schlaich MP, Schmieder RE, Whitbourn R, Williams B, Zeymer U, Zirlik A, Mancia G; GSR Investigators
Hypertension 2015 Apr;65(4):766-74. Epub 2015 Feb 17 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.05010. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25691618
Donat-Vargas C, Gea A, Sayon-Orea C, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Bes-Rastrollo M
Hypertension 2015 Apr;65(4):714-21. Epub 2015 Feb 2 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04435. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25646299
Li Y, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Bixler EO, Sun Y, Zhou J, Ren R, Li T, Tang X
Hypertension 2015 Mar;65(3):644-50. Epub 2015 Jan 26 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04604. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25624338
Li W, Sullivan MN, Zhang S, Worker CJ, Xiong Z, Speth RC, Feng Y
Hypertension 2015 Feb;65(2):352-61. Epub 2014 Nov 24 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04458. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25421983

Prognosis

Khan SG, Geer A, Fok HW, Shabeeh H, Brett SE, Shah AM, Chowienczyk PJ
Hypertension 2015 Apr;65(4):903-9. Epub 2015 Mar 2 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04538. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25733243
Böhm M, Mahfoud F, Ukena C, Hoppe UC, Narkiewicz K, Negoita M, Ruilope L, Schlaich MP, Schmieder RE, Whitbourn R, Williams B, Zeymer U, Zirlik A, Mancia G; GSR Investigators
Hypertension 2015 Apr;65(4):766-74. Epub 2015 Feb 17 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.05010. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25691618
Donat-Vargas C, Gea A, Sayon-Orea C, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Bes-Rastrollo M
Hypertension 2015 Apr;65(4):714-21. Epub 2015 Feb 2 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04435. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25646299
Qiu M, Shen W, Song X, Ju L, Tong W, Wang H, Zheng S, Jin Y, Wu Y, Wang W, Tian J
Hypertension 2015 Mar;65(3):525-30. Epub 2015 Jan 26 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04632. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25624343
Ataklte F, Erqou S, Kaptoge S, Taye B, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Kengne AP
Hypertension 2015 Feb;65(2):291-8. Epub 2014 Nov 10 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04394. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25385758

Clinical prediction guides

Kurtz TW, Dominiczak AF, DiCarlo SE, Pravenec M, Morris RC Jr
Hypertension 2015 May;65(5):932-41. Epub 2015 Mar 9 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.05092. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25753977
Qiu M, Shen W, Song X, Ju L, Tong W, Wang H, Zheng S, Jin Y, Wu Y, Wang W, Tian J
Hypertension 2015 Mar;65(3):525-30. Epub 2015 Jan 26 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04632. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25624343
Yoon SS, Gu Q, Nwankwo T, Wright JD, Hong Y, Burt V
Hypertension 2015 Jan;65(1):54-61. Epub 2014 Nov 16 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04012. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25399687
Ataklte F, Erqou S, Kaptoge S, Taye B, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Kengne AP
Hypertension 2015 Feb;65(2):291-8. Epub 2014 Nov 10 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04394. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25385758
Koo BB, Sillau S, Dean DA 2nd, Lutsey PL, Redline S
Hypertension 2015 Jan;65(1):70-7. Epub 2014 Oct 6 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04193. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25287399Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Patel HC, Hayward C, Ozdemir BA, Rosen SD, Krum H, Lyon AR, Francis DP, di Mario C
Hypertension 2015 Feb;65(2):401-6. Epub 2014 Nov 17 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04640. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25403604
Ataklte F, Erqou S, Kaptoge S, Taye B, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Kengne AP
Hypertension 2015 Feb;65(2):291-8. Epub 2014 Nov 10 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04394. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25385758
Huai P, Xun H, Reilly KH, Wang Y, Ma W, Xi B
Hypertension 2013 Dec;62(6):1021-6. Epub 2013 Sep 30 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01965. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24082054
Sharman JE, Marwick TH, Gilroy D, Otahal P, Abhayaratna WP, Stowasser M; Value of Central Blood Pressure for GUIDing ManagEment of Hypertension Study Investigators
Hypertension 2013 Dec;62(6):1138-45. Epub 2013 Sep 23 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02001. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24060891
Kim DH, Kim C, Ding EL, Townsend MK, Lipsitz LA
Hypertension 2013 Jul;62(1):27-32. Epub 2013 May 28 doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01453. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23716587Free PMC Article

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