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Items: 5

1.

Adenocarcinoma

A malignant neoplasm arising from glandular cells. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
122
Concept ID:
C0001418
Neoplastic Process
2.

Patent ductus arteriosus

Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus, or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), is the second most common congenital heart disease, affecting approximately 1 in 1,600 to 5,000 live births in the U.S. (Mitchell et al., 1971). In fetal life, the ductus arteriosus, a muscular artery, shunts blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta, bypassing the lungs. Its abrupt closure at birth establishes the mature circulatory pattern and represents a dramatic example of vascular remodeling. Failure of this normal process results in persistent PDA, which left untreated can result in pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Closure of the ductus is a complex process. Aspects of this process are regulated by oxygen tension and a decrease in levels of hormones such as prostaglandin E2. PDA occurring in preterm infants often closes spontaneously or in response to inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis (Ramsay et al., 1987). Term PDA typically has not been regarded as a genetic disorder, because it most often occurs sporadically. Nonetheless, term PDA recurs among 5% of sibs of PDA cases (Polani and Campbell, 1960; Lamy et al., 1957), suggesting a genetic component to disease pathogenesis that has typically been presumed to be multifactorial. That single genes can influence this trait has been demonstrated by a mouse model of PDA resulting from disruption of the prostaglandin E2 receptor (Nguyen et al., 1997) and by rare syndromic forms of PDA such as Char syndrome (169100), an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the transcription factor TFAP2B (601601) (Mani et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
3.

Disorder of pancreas

The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces juices that help break down food and hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Problems with the pancreas can lead to many health problems. These include. -Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas: This happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. - Pancreatic cancer. - Cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder in which thick, sticky mucus can also block tubes in your pancreas. The pancreas also plays a role in diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas no longer make insulin because the body's immune system has attacked them. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas loses the ability to secrete enough insulin in response to meals. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
14583
Concept ID:
C0030286
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Disorder of endocrine system

Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They travel through your bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work slowly and affect body processes from head to toe. These include. -Growth and development. -Metabolism - digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and maintaining body temperature . -Sexual function. -Reproduction. -Mood. If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and changes in your blood's fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels. In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too little of a hormone.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
4043
Concept ID:
C0014130
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Disorder of digestive system

When you eat, your body breaks food down to a form it can use to build and nourish cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. . Your digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube. It runs from your mouth to your anus and includes your esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. Your liver, gallbladder and pancreas are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. . There are many types of digestive disorders. The symptoms vary widely depending on the problem. In general, you should see your doctor if you have . -Blood in your stool. -Changes in bowel habits. -Severe abdominal pain. -Unintentional weight loss. -Heartburn not relieved by antacids. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
3828
Concept ID:
C0012242
Disease or Syndrome
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