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Influenza

MedGen UID:
9466
Concept ID:
C0021400
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Flu, Human; Grippe; Human Flu; Human Influenza; Human Influenzas; Influenza in Human; Influenza in Humans; Influenza, Human; Influenzas; Influenzas, Human
SNOMED CT: Influenza (6142004); Flu (6142004); Grippe (6142004)
 
Gene: IFITM3
Cytogenetic location: 11p15.5
OMIM®: 614680

Definition

Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. The viruses pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth. Between 5% and 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. They may include: -Body or muscle aches. -Chills . -Cough . -Fever . -Headache . -Sore throat . Is it a cold or the flu? Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Flu almost never causes an upset stomach. And stomach flu isn't really flu at all, but gastroenteritis. Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. . The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good hygiene, including hand washing, can also help. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Westra J, van Assen S, Wilting KR, Land J, Horst G, de Haan A, Bijl M
Clin Exp Immunol 2014 Oct;178(1):40-7. doi: 10.1111/cei.12390. PMID: 24889761
Biggerstaff M, Jhung MA, Reed C, Fry AM, Balluz L, Finelli L
J Infect Dis 2014 Aug 15;210(4):535-44. Epub 2014 Apr 13 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu224. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24731959
Tsang TK, Cauchemez S, Perera RA, Freeman G, Fang VJ, Ip DK, Leung GM, Malik Peiris JS, Cowling BJ
J Infect Dis 2014 Sep 1;210(5):684-92. Epub 2014 Mar 26 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu186. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24676208Free PMC Article
Ferdinands JM, Olsho LE, Agan AA, Bhat N, Sullivan RM, Hall M, Mourani PM, Thompson M, Randolph AG; Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network
J Infect Dis 2014 Sep 1;210(5):674-83. Epub 2014 Mar 26 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu185. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24676207
Zhong W, Reed C, Blair PJ, Katz JM, Hancock K; Influenza Serology Working Group
J Infect Dis 2014 Apr 1;209(7):986-94. Epub 2013 Dec 10 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit811. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24325965

Diagnosis

Ortiz JR, Neuzil KM, Shay DK, Rue TC, Neradilek MB, Zhou H, Seymour CW, Hooper LG, Cheng PY, Goss CH, Cooke CR
Crit Care Med 2014 Nov;42(11):2325-32. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000545. PMID: 25148596
Biggerstaff M, Jhung MA, Reed C, Fry AM, Balluz L, Finelli L
J Infect Dis 2014 Aug 15;210(4):535-44. Epub 2014 Apr 13 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu224. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24731959
Williams LO, Kupka NJ, Schmaltz SP, Barrett S, Uyeki TM, Jernigan DB
J Clin Virol 2014 May;60(1):27-33. Epub 2014 Feb 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.01.016. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24630481
Thompson LH, Malik MT, Gumel A, Strome T, Mahmud SM
Epidemiol Infect 2014 Nov;142(11):2397-405. Epub 2014 Jan 20 doi: 10.1017/S0950268813003464. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24480399
Sullivan SG, Komadina N, Grant K, Jelley L, Papadakis G, Kelly H
J Med Virol 2014 Jun;86(6):1017-25. Epub 2013 Nov 8 doi: 10.1002/jmv.23847. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24395730

Therapy

Landry N, Pillet S, Favre D, Poulin JF, Trépanier S, Yassine-Diab B, Ward BJ
Clin Immunol 2014 Oct;154(2):164-77. Epub 2014 Aug 14 doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2014.08.003. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25128897
Westra J, van Assen S, Wilting KR, Land J, Horst G, de Haan A, Bijl M
Clin Exp Immunol 2014 Oct;178(1):40-7. doi: 10.1111/cei.12390. PMID: 24889761
Roy-Ghanta S, Van der Most R, Li P, Vaughn DW
J Infect Dis 2014 Nov 1;210(9):1419-30. Epub 2014 May 26 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu284. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24864125Free PMC Article
Biggerstaff M, Jhung MA, Reed C, Fry AM, Balluz L, Finelli L
J Infect Dis 2014 Aug 15;210(4):535-44. Epub 2014 Apr 13 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu224. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24731959
Ferdinands JM, Olsho LE, Agan AA, Bhat N, Sullivan RM, Hall M, Mourani PM, Thompson M, Randolph AG; Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network
J Infect Dis 2014 Sep 1;210(5):674-83. Epub 2014 Mar 26 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu185. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24676207

Prognosis

Nacken W, Anhlan D, Hrincius ER, Mostafa A, Wolff T, Sadewasser A, Pleschka S, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S
J Virol 2014 Aug;88(16):8843-52. Epub 2014 May 28 doi: 10.1128/JVI.00424-14. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24872593Free PMC Article
van Riel D, Leijten LM, Verdijk RM, GeurtsvanKessel C, van der Vries E, van Rossum AM, Osterhaus AD, Kuiken T
J Infect Dis 2014 Aug 1;210(3):419-23. Epub 2014 Feb 18 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu097. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24550441
Charland KM, de Montigny L, Brownstein JS, Buckeridge DL
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2014 May;8(3):317-28. Epub 2014 Jan 2 doi: 10.1111/irv.12227. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24382000Free PMC Article
Nsoesie EO, Brownstein JS, Ramakrishnan N, Marathe MV
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2014 May;8(3):309-16. Epub 2013 Dec 23 doi: 10.1111/irv.12226. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24373466Free PMC Article
Fowlkes A, Giorgi A, Erdman D, Temte J, Goodin K, Di Lonardo S, Sun Y, Martin K, Feist M, Linz R, Boulton R, Bancroft E, McHugh L, Lojo J, Filbert K, Finelli L; IISP Working Group
J Infect Dis 2014 Jun 1;209(11):1715-25. Epub 2013 Dec 12 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit806. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24338352

Clinical prediction guides

Fonville JM, Wilks SH, James SL, Fox A, Ventresca M, Aban M, Xue L, Jones TC, Le NM, Pham QT, Tran ND, Wong Y, Mosterin A, Katzelnick LC, Labonte D, Le TT, van der Net G, Skepner E, Russell CA, Kaplan TD, Rimmelzwaan GF, Masurel N, de Jong JC, Palache A, Beyer WE, Le QM, Nguyen TH, Wertheim HF, Hurt AC, Osterhaus AD, Barr IG, Fouchier RA, Horby PW, Smith DJ
Science 2014 Nov 21;346(6212):996-1000. doi: 10.1126/science.1256427. PMID: 25414313Free PMC Article
Landry N, Pillet S, Favre D, Poulin JF, Trépanier S, Yassine-Diab B, Ward BJ
Clin Immunol 2014 Oct;154(2):164-77. Epub 2014 Aug 14 doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2014.08.003. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25128897
Roy-Ghanta S, Van der Most R, Li P, Vaughn DW
J Infect Dis 2014 Nov 1;210(9):1419-30. Epub 2014 May 26 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu284. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24864125Free PMC Article
Naleway AL, Irving SA, Henninger ML, Li DK, Shifflett P, Ball S, Williams JL, Cragan J, Gee J, Thompson MG; Vaccine Safety Datalink and Pregnancy and Influenza Project
Vaccine 2014 May 30;32(26):3122-7. Epub 2014 Apr 14 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.021. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24742490
Sullivan SG, Komadina N, Grant K, Jelley L, Papadakis G, Kelly H
J Med Virol 2014 Jun;86(6):1017-25. Epub 2013 Nov 8 doi: 10.1002/jmv.23847. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24395730

Recent systematic reviews

Biggerstaff M, Cauchemez S, Reed C, Gambhir M, Finelli L
BMC Infect Dis 2014 Sep 4;14:480. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-480. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25186370Free PMC Article
Cárdenas G, Soto-Hernández JL, Díaz-Alba A, Ugalde Y, Mérida-Puga J, Rosetti M, Sciutto E
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2014 May;8(3):339-46. PMID: 24895698Free PMC Article
Darvishian M, Gefenaite G, Turner RM, Pechlivanoglou P, Van der Hoek W, Van den Heuvel ER, Hak E
J Clin Epidemiol 2014 Jul;67(7):734-44. Epub 2014 Apr 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.02.009. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24768004
Nsoesie EO, Brownstein JS, Ramakrishnan N, Marathe MV
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2014 May;8(3):309-16. Epub 2013 Dec 23 doi: 10.1111/irv.12226. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24373466Free PMC Article
Fielding JE, Kelly HA, Mercer GN, Glass K
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2014 Mar;8(2):142-50. Epub 2013 Dec 2 doi: 10.1111/irv.12216. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24299099Free PMC Article

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