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Tachycardia

MedGen UID:
21453
Concept ID:
C0039231
Finding; Finding; Pathologic Function
Synonyms: Elevated heart rate; Increased heart rate; Rapid heart beat
SNOMED CT: Heart rate fast (3424008); Tachycardia (6285003); Tachycardia - pulse (86651002); Rapid pulse (86651002); Rapid heart beat (6285003); Increased heart rate (6285003); Heart rate fast (6285003); Pulse fast (86651002); Tachycardia (3424008); Rapid heart beat (3424008); Increased heart rate (3424008)
 
HPO: HP:0001649

Definition

Tachyarrhythmia is any disturbance of the heart rhythm in which the heart rate is abnormally increased. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVTachycardia

Conditions with this feature

Familial dysautonomia
MedGen UID:
41678
Concept ID:
C0013364
Congenital Abnormality
Familial dysautonomia (FD) affects the development and survival of sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic neurons. It is a debilitating disease present from birth. Neuronal degeneration progresses throughout life. Affected individuals have gastrointestinal dysfunction, vomiting crises, recurrent pneumonia, altered sensitivity to pain and temperature perception, and cardiovascular instability. About 40% of individuals have autonomic crises. Hypotonia contributes to delay in acquisition of motor milestones. Older individuals often have a broad-based and ataxic gait that deteriorates over time. Life expectancy is decreased.
Fructose-biphosphatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
42106
Concept ID:
C0016756
Disease or Syndrome
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired gluconeogenesis. Patients present with hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis on fasting and may have episodes of hyperventilation, apnea, hypoglycemia, and ketosis. Although the disorder may be lethal in the newborn period, proper treatment yields an excellent prognosis (Kikawa et al., 1997; Matsuura et al., 2002).
Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility
MedGen UID:
9867
Concept ID:
C0024591
Disease or Syndrome
Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle calcium regulation associated with uncontrolled skeletal muscle hypermetabolism. Manifestations of malignant hyperthermia (MH) are precipitated by certain volatile anesthetics (i.e., halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, enflurane), either alone or in conjunction with a depolarizing muscle relaxant (specifically, succinylcholine). The triggering substances release calcium stores from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and may promote entry of calcium from the myoplasm, causing contracture of skeletal muscles, glycogenolysis, and increased cellular metabolism, resulting in production of heat and excess lactate. Affected individuals experience: acidosis, hypercapnia, tachycardia, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis with subsequent increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration, hyperkalemia with a risk for cardiac arrhythmia or even arrest, and myoglobinuria with a risk for renal failure. In nearly all cases, the first manifestations of MH (tachycardia and tachypnea) occur in the operating room; however, MH may also occur in the early postoperative period. There is mounting evidence that some affected individuals will also develop MH with exercise and/or on exposure to hot environments. Without proper and prompt treatment with dantrolene sodium, mortality is extremely high.
Pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
18419
Concept ID:
C0031511
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.
Stiff-man syndrome
MedGen UID:
39017
Concept ID:
C0085292
Disease or Syndrome
The stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is most often an adult-onset sporadic acquired disorder characterized by progressive muscle stiffness with superimposed painful muscle spasms accompanied by electromyographic evidence of continuous motor activity at rest. SPS has been associated with autoimmune disorders, diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, and hypopituitarism with adrenal insufficiency (George et al., 1984). Approximately 60% of patients with SPS have antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD2, or GAD65; 138275), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggesting an immune-mediated pathogenesis (Folli et al., 1993). Approximately 10% of patients develop SPS as a paraneoplastic neurologic disorder associated with antibodies to amphiphysin (AMPH; 600418), an intracellular protein associated with neuronal synaptic vesicle endocytosis (Burns, 2005). See also congenital stiff-man syndrome, or hereditary hyperexplexia (149400), which is caused by mutations in subunits of the glycine receptor gene (GLRA1, 138491; GLRB, 138492). Meinck and Thompson (2002) provided a detailed review of stiff-person syndrome. They also discussed 2 possibly related conditions, progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity (PERM), a more severe disorder with other neurologic features, and stiff-limb or stiff-leg syndrome, a focal disorder.
Hereditary coproporphyria
MedGen UID:
57931
Concept ID:
C0162531
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is an acute (hepatic) porphyria in which the acute symptoms are neurovisceral and occur in discrete episodes. Attacks typically start in the abdomen with low-grade pain that slowly increases over a period of days (not hours) with nausea progressing to vomiting. In some individuals, the pain is predominantly in the back or extremities. When an acute attack is untreated, a motor neuropathy may develop over a period of days or a few weeks. The neuropathy first appears as weakness proximally in the arms and legs, then progresses distally to involve the hands and feet. Some individuals experience respiratory insufficiency due to loss of innervation of the diaphragm and muscles of respiration. Acute attacks are associated commonly with use of certain medications, caloric deprivation, and changes in female reproductive hormones. About 20% of those with an acute attack also experience photosensitivity associated with bullae and skin fragility.
Variegate porphyria
MedGen UID:
58118
Concept ID:
C0162532
Disease or Syndrome
Variegate porphyria (VP) is a cutaneous porphyria (with chronic blistering skin lesions) and an acute porphyria (with severe episodic neurovisceral symptoms). The most common manifestation of VP is adult-onset cutaneous blistering lesions (subepidermal vesicles, bullae, and erosions that crust over and heal slowly) of sun-exposed skin, especially the hands and face. Other chronic skin findings include milia, scarring, thickening, and areas of decreased and increased skin pigmentation. Facial hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis may occur. Cutaneous manifestations may improve in winter, and be less prevalent in northern regions and in dark-skinned individuals. Acute neurovisceral symptoms can occur any time after puberty, but less often in the elderly. Acute manifestations are highly variable, but may be similar from episode to episode in a patient with recurrent attacks; not all symptoms are present in a single episode; and acute symptoms may become chronic. Symptoms are more common in women than men. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain; constipation; pain in the back, chest, and extremities; anxiety; seizures; and a primarily motor neuropathy resulting in muscle weakness that may progress to quadriparesis and respiratory paralysis. Psychiatric disturbances and autonomic neuropathy can also be observed. Acute attacks may be severe and are potentially fatal.
Acute intermittent porphyria
MedGen UID:
56452
Concept ID:
C0162565
Disease or Syndrome
Acute intermittent porphyria (referred to as AIP in this GeneReview) results from half-normal activity of the enzyme hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It is characterized clinically by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks of severe abdominal pain without peritoneal signs, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and hypertension. Attacks may be complicated by neurologic findings (mental changes, convulsions, and peripheral neuropathy that may progress to respiratory paralysis), and hyponatremia. Acute attacks, which may be provoked by certain drugs, alcoholic beverages, endocrine factors, calorie restriction, stress, and infections, usually resolve within two weeks. Most individuals with AIP have one or a few attacks; about 5% (mainly women) have recurrent attacks (defined as >4 attacks/year) that may persist for years. Other long-term complications are chronic renal failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and hypertension. Attacks, which are very rare before puberty, are more common in women than men. All individuals with a genetic change in the gene HMBS that predisposes to AIP are at risk of developing acute attacks; however, most never have symptoms and are said to have latent (or presymptomatic) AIP.
Hydroxykynureninuria
MedGen UID:
78681
Concept ID:
C0268474
Congenital Abnormality
Trimethylaminuria
MedGen UID:
83350
Concept ID:
C0342739
Disease or Syndrome
Primary trimethylaminuria is characterized by a fishy odor resembling that of rotten or decaying fish that results from excess excretion of trimethylamine in the urine, breath, sweat, and reproductive fluids. No physical symptoms are associated with trimethylaminuria. Affected individuals appear normal and healthy; however, the unpleasant odor often results in social and psychological problems. Symptoms are usually present from birth and may worsen during puberty. In females, symptoms are more severe just before and during menstruation, after taking oral contraceptives, and around the time of menopause.
Myotonic dystrophy type 2
MedGen UID:
155755
Concept ID:
C0752354
Disease or Syndrome
Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is characterized by myotonia (90% of affected individuals) and muscle dysfunction (weakness, pain, and stiffness) (82%), and less commonly by cardiac conduction defects, iridescent posterior subcapsular cataracts, insulin-insensitive type 2 diabetes mellitus, and testicular failure. Although myotonia (involuntary muscle contraction with delayed relaxation) has been reported during the first decade, onset is typically in the third decade, most commonly with fluctuating or episodic muscle pain that can be debilitating and weakness of the neck flexors and finger flexors. Subsequently, weakness occurs in the elbow extensors and the hip flexors and extensors. Facial weakness and weakness of the ankle dorsiflexors are less common. Myotonia rarely causes severe symptoms.
Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder
MedGen UID:
331565
Concept ID:
C1833661
Disease or Syndrome
Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, formerly known as familial rectal pain, is characterized by paroxysms of rectal, ocular, or submandibular pain with flushing. Onset is usually in the neonatal period or infancy (Fertleman et al., 2006).
Hyperthyroidism, nonautoimmune
MedGen UID:
373154
Concept ID:
C1836706
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 3
MedGen UID:
373232
Concept ID:
C1837014
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583.
King Denborough syndrome
MedGen UID:
327082
Concept ID:
C1840365
Disease or Syndrome
Paragangliomas 3
MedGen UID:
340200
Concept ID:
C1854336
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.
Groll Hirschowitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
347426
Concept ID:
C1857338
Disease or Syndrome
Stoll Alembik Dott syndrome
MedGen UID:
395493
Concept ID:
C1860471
Disease or Syndrome
Short QT syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
400662
Concept ID:
C1865018
Disease or Syndrome
Short QT syndrome is a cardiac channelopathy associated with a predisposition to atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Patients have a structurally normal heart, but electrocardiography (ECG) exhibits abbreviated QTc (Bazett's corrected QT) intervals of less than 360 ms (summary by Moreno et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short QT syndrome, see SQT1 (609620).
Pheochromocytoma-islet cell tumor syndrome
MedGen UID:
401431
Concept ID:
C1868392
Neoplastic Process
Paragangliomas 1
MedGen UID:
358258
Concept ID:
C1868633
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1t
MedGen UID:
414536
Concept ID:
C2752015
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type VI
MedGen UID:
761278
Concept ID:
C3539003
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VI is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, respiratory and feeding difficulties, lack of psychomotor development, and autonomic abnormalities including labile cardiovascular function, lack of corneal reflexes leading to corneal scarring, areflexia, and absent axonal flare response after intradermal histamine injection (summary by Edvardson et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, see HSAN1 (162400).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Fuchs T, Torjman A
Isr Med Assoc J 2015 Nov;17(11):669-72. PMID: 26757561
Hirsch M, Altenmüller DM, Schulze-Bonhage A
Epilepsia 2015 Oct;56(10):1639-47. Epub 2015 Aug 18 doi: 10.1111/epi.13117. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26282577
Stefanidou M, Carlson C, Friedman D
Clin Neurophysiol 2015 Dec;126(12):2255-60. Epub 2015 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.01.020. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25817466
Sachanandani NS, Kale SS, Skolnick GB, Barbour JR, Myckatyn TM
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2015 Jun;68(6):787-91. Epub 2015 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2015.02.018. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25764967
Sun L, Sun S, Zeng S, Li Y, Pan W, Zhang Z
Mol Med Rep 2015 Jun;11(6):4039-46. Epub 2015 Jan 23 doi: 10.3892/mmr.2015.3246. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25625292Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Chin A, Vezi B, Namane M, Weich H, Scott-Millar R
S Afr Med J 2016 Mar;106(3):246-50. PMID: 27303760
Zhao YT, Wang L, Yi Z
Can J Cardiol 2016 Mar;32(3):395.e5-6. Epub 2015 Nov 19 doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2015.06.024. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26604120
Fuchs T, Torjman A
Isr Med Assoc J 2015 Nov;17(11):669-72. PMID: 26757561
Stefanidou M, Carlson C, Friedman D
Clin Neurophysiol 2015 Dec;126(12):2255-60. Epub 2015 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.01.020. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25817466
Ho RT, Idris S, Joshi N, Mehrotra P
Heart Rhythm 2015 Aug;12(8):1878-81. Epub 2015 Mar 23 doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.03.030. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25814419

Therapy

Zhao YT, Wang L, Yi Z
Can J Cardiol 2016 Mar;32(3):395.e5-6. Epub 2015 Nov 19 doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2015.06.024. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26604120
Page RL, Joglar JA, Caldwell MA, Calkins H, Conti JB, Deal BJ, Estes NA 3rd, Field ME, Goldberger ZD, Hammill SC, Indik JH, Lindsay BD, Olshansky B, Russo AM, Shen WK, Tracy CM, Al-Khatib SM; Evidence Review Committee Chair‡
Circulation 2016 Apr 5;133(14):e506-74. Epub 2015 Sep 23 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000311. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26399663
Page RL, Joglar JA, Caldwell MA, Calkins H, Conti JB, Deal BJ, Estes NA 3rd, Field ME, Goldberger ZD, Hammill SC, Indik JH, Lindsay BD, Olshansky B, Russo AM, Shen WK, Tracy CM, Al-Khatib SM; Evidence Review Committee Chair‡
Circulation 2016 Apr 5;133(14):e471-505. Epub 2015 Sep 23 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000310. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26399662
Fuchs T, Torjman A
Isr Med Assoc J 2015 Nov;17(11):669-72. PMID: 26757561
Sachanandani NS, Kale SS, Skolnick GB, Barbour JR, Myckatyn TM
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2015 Jun;68(6):787-91. Epub 2015 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2015.02.018. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25764967

Prognosis

Lally J, Docherty MJ, MacCabe JH
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Jun 9;(6):CD011566. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011566.pub2. PMID: 27277334
Fuchs T, Torjman A
Isr Med Assoc J 2015 Nov;17(11):669-72. PMID: 26757561
Stefanidou M, Carlson C, Friedman D
Clin Neurophysiol 2015 Dec;126(12):2255-60. Epub 2015 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.01.020. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25817466
Sachanandani NS, Kale SS, Skolnick GB, Barbour JR, Myckatyn TM
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2015 Jun;68(6):787-91. Epub 2015 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2015.02.018. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25764967
El Bakkali M, Dakka T, Rkain H, Coghlan L, Lachhab A, Radjab Y, Errguig L, Aboudrar S, Benjelloun H
Presse Med 2015 Feb;44(2):e33-40. Epub 2014 Dec 18 doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2014.05.031. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25534458

Clinical prediction guides

Fuchs T, Torjman A
Isr Med Assoc J 2015 Nov;17(11):669-72. PMID: 26757561
Stefanidou M, Carlson C, Friedman D
Clin Neurophysiol 2015 Dec;126(12):2255-60. Epub 2015 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.01.020. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25817466
Sachanandani NS, Kale SS, Skolnick GB, Barbour JR, Myckatyn TM
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2015 Jun;68(6):787-91. Epub 2015 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2015.02.018. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25764967
Sun L, Sun S, Zeng S, Li Y, Pan W, Zhang Z
Mol Med Rep 2015 Jun;11(6):4039-46. Epub 2015 Jan 23 doi: 10.3892/mmr.2015.3246. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25625292Free PMC Article
El Bakkali M, Dakka T, Rkain H, Coghlan L, Lachhab A, Radjab Y, Errguig L, Aboudrar S, Benjelloun H
Presse Med 2015 Feb;44(2):e33-40. Epub 2014 Dec 18 doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2014.05.031. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25534458

Recent systematic reviews

Lally J, Docherty MJ, MacCabe JH
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Jun 9;(6):CD011566. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011566.pub2. PMID: 27277334
Page RL, Joglar JA, Caldwell MA, Calkins H, Conti JB, Deal BJ, Estes NA 3rd, Field ME, Goldberger ZD, Hammill SC, Indik JH, Lindsay BD, Olshansky B, Russo AM, Shen WK, Tracy CM, Al-Khatib SM; Evidence Review Committee Chair‡
Circulation 2016 Apr 5;133(14):e506-74. Epub 2015 Sep 23 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000311. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26399663
Page RL, Joglar JA, Caldwell MA, Calkins H, Conti JB, Deal BJ, Estes NA 3rd, Field ME, Goldberger ZD, Hammill SC, Indik JH, Lindsay BD, Olshansky B, Russo AM, Shen WK, Tracy CM, Al-Khatib SM; Evidence Review Committee Chair‡
Circulation 2016 Apr 5;133(14):e471-505. Epub 2015 Sep 23 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000310. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26399662
Waddell-Smith KE, Ertresvaag KN, Li J, Chaudhuri K, Crawford JR, Hamill JK, Haydock D, Skinner JR; Cardiac Inherited Disease Group New Zealand
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2015 Oct;8(5):1151-8. Epub 2015 Jul 29 doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.115.003159. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26224781
Irie T, Yu R, Bradfield JS, Vaseghi M, Buch EF, Ajijola O, Macias C, Fujimura O, Mandapati R, Boyle NG, Shivkumar K, Tung R
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2015 Apr;8(2):390-9. Epub 2015 Mar 4 doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.114.002637. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25740836Free PMC Article

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