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Results: 20

1.

Dopamine

A monoamine compound with positive inotropic activity. Dopamine is a naturally occurring catecholamine formed by decarboxylation of dehydroxyphenylalanine and a precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine binds to alpha-1 and beta-1 adrenergic receptors. Mediated through myocardial beta-1 adrenergic receptors, dopamine increase heart rate and force, thereby increasing cardiac output. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor stimulation on vascular smooth muscle, leads to vasoconstriction and results in an increase in systemic vascular resistance. Stimulation of dopaminergic receptors in renal vasculature, leads to renal blood vessel dilation, and an increase in glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, sodium excretion, and urine output. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
41644
Concept ID:
C0013030
Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Addiction

The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
88373
Concept ID:
C0085281
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
3.

Drug Dependence

Drug dependence - replaced the term "drug addiction" and is defined as a state, psychic and sometimes also physical, resulting from the interaction between a living organism and a drug, characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effects, and sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence. Tolerance may or may not be present. A person may be dependent on more than one drug. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
307144
Concept ID:
C1510472
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
4.

Opiate agonist

A family of synthetic drugs used to treat moderate to severe pain. They are similar to opiates such as morphine and codeine. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
66892
Concept ID:
C0242402
Pharmacologic Substance
5.

Nicotine

Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
18039
Concept ID:
C0028040
Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Ethanol

If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking is probably safe. It may even have health benefits, including reducing your risk of certain heart problems. Moderate drinking is one drink a day for women or anyone over 65, and two drinks a day for men under 65. Some people should not drink at all, including alcoholics, children, pregnant women, people on certain medicines and people with some medical conditions. If you have questions about whether it is safe for you to drink, speak with your healthcare provider. Anything more than moderate drinking can be risky. Binge drinking - drinking five or more drinks at one time - can damage your health and increase your risk for accidents, injuries and assault. Years of heavy drinking can lead to liver disease, heart disease, cancer and pancreatitis. It can also cause problems at home, at work and with friends. . NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
186
Concept ID:
C0001962
Pharmacologic Substance
7.

Alcohol dependence

MedGen UID:
426875
Concept ID:
CN028882
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Dependence

The psychological or physiological need to take a substance in oder to experience its effects or to avoid the effects of its absence. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
141006
Concept ID:
C0439857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
9.

Chronic

A disease or condition that persists or progresses over a long period of time. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104657
Concept ID:
C0205191
10.

Alcoholic Intoxication, Chronic

For most adults, moderate alcohol use is probably not harmful. However, about 18 million adult Americans are alcoholics or have alcohol problems. Alcoholism is a disease with four main features:: - Craving - a strong need to drink. - Loss of control - not being able to stop drinking once you've started. - Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating, or shakiness when you don't drink. - Tolerance - the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol to feel the same effect. Alcoholism carries many serious dangers. Heavy drinking can increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcoholism also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is help. Start by talking to your health care provider. Medicines, counseling, and support groups may help you to stop drinking. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
1801
Concept ID:
C0001973
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
11.

Alcohol

A class of compounds where a hydroxyl (OH) group is attached to single bonded hydrocarbons. Alcohols are classified according to the position of the carbon atom with the attached hydroxyl group (i.e. primary alcohols are alcohols with the OH group attached to the primary carbon atom, C1). Uses include solvents, astringents, and anti-infective activity. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
1400
Concept ID:
C0001975
Pharmacologic Substance
12.

Chemically-Induced Disorders

Disorders caused by the intentional or unintentional ingestion or exposure to chemical substances such as PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; NOXAE; and PESTICIDES. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
772538
Concept ID:
C3658339
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Intropin

MedGen UID:
147406
Concept ID:
C0721081
Pharmacologic Substance
14.

Diagnosis, Psychiatric

MedGen UID:
138165
Concept ID:
C0376338
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
15.

Alcohol-induced organic mental disorder

Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
68632
Concept ID:
C0236664
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
16.

Substance-Related Disorders

Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, or toxin exposure. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
66746
Concept ID:
C0236969
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
17.

Mental disorder

Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including: -Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias. -Bipolar disorder. -Depression. -Mood disorders. -Personality disorders. -Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a role. Your life experiences, such as stress or a history of abuse, may also matter. Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a mental disorder. A mother's exposure to viruses or toxic chemicals while pregnant may play a part. Other factors may increase your risk, such as use of illegal drugs or having a serious medical condition like cancer. Medications and counseling can help many mental disorders. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
14047
Concept ID:
C0004936
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
18.

Pharmaceutical Preparations

You may need to take medicines every day, or only once in a while. Either way, you want to make sure that the medicines are safe and will help you get better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety and effectiveness of both prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They may not be safe during pregnancy. To reduce the risk of reactions and make sure that you get better, it is important for you to take your medicines correctly and be careful when giving medicines to children.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
8496
Concept ID:
C0013227
Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Biogenic amine

A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2255
Concept ID:
C0005496
Pharmacologic Substance
20.

Catecholamine

A type of neurohormone (a chemical that is made by nerve cells and used to send signals to other cells). Catecholamines are important in stress responses. High levels cause high blood pressure which can lead to headaches, sweating, pounding of the heart, pain in the chest, and anxiety. Examples of catecholamines include dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
805
Concept ID:
C0007412
Pharmacologic Substance

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