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Patent ductus arteriosus

In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences. [from HPO]

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Patent ductus arteriosus

Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus, or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), is the second most common congenital heart disease, affecting approximately 1 in 1,600 to 5,000 live births in the U.S. (Mitchell et al., 1971). In fetal life, the ductus arteriosus, a muscular artery, shunts blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta, bypassing the lungs. Its abrupt closure at birth establishes the mature circulatory pattern and represents a dramatic example of vascular remodeling. Failure of this normal process results in persistent PDA, which left untreated can result in pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Closure of the ductus is a complex process. Aspects of this process are regulated by oxygen tension and a decrease in levels of hormones such as prostaglandin E2. PDA occurring in preterm infants often closes spontaneously or in response to inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis (Ramsay et al., 1987). Term PDA typically has not been regarded as a genetic disorder, because it most often occurs sporadically. Nonetheless, term PDA recurs among 5% of sibs of PDA cases (Polani and Campbell, 1960; Lamy et al., 1957), suggesting a genetic component to disease pathogenesis that has typically been presumed to be multifactorial. That single genes can influence this trait has been demonstrated by a mouse model of PDA resulting from disruption of the prostaglandin E2 receptor (Nguyen et al., 1997) and by rare syndromic forms of PDA such as Char syndrome (169100), an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the transcription factor TFAP2B (601601) (Mani et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

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Congenital Abnormality

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