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Results: 1 to 20 of 44

1.

Ophthalmoplegia

Weakness or paralysis of at least one of the muscles controlling the movement of the eye. It results from degeneration of the muscles or the neural pathways involved in the eye movement. Representative disorders causing ophthalmoplegia include ocular myopathies and multiple sclerosis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
45205
Concept ID:
C0029089
Sign or Symptom
2.

Parkinsonism

Characteristic neurologic anomaly resulting form degeneration of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain, characterized clinically by shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504793
Concept ID:
CN001191
Finding
3.

Ophthalmoplegia

Paralysis of one or more extraocular muscles that are responsible for eye movements. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504518
Concept ID:
CN000564
Finding
4.

Parkinson disease 6, autosomal recessive early-onset

The PINK1 type of young-onset Parkinson disease is characterized by variable combinations of rigidity, bradykinesia, and rest tremor, often making it clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic Parkinson disease. Lower-limb dystonia may be a presenting sign. Onset usually occurs in the third or fourth decade. The disease is slowly progressive. Clinical signs vary; hyperreflexia may be present and abnormal behavior and/or psychiatric manifestations have been described. Dyskinesias as a result of treatment with levodopa frequently occur, as with all individuals with young-onset disease, regardless of the underlying genetic cause. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
342982
Concept ID:
C1853833
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Mitochondrial inheritance

The distribution of mitochondria, including the mitochondrial genome, into daughter cells after mitosis or meiosis, mediated by interactions between mitochondria and the cytoskeleton. [GOC:mcc, PMID:10873824, PMID:11389764] [from GO]

MedGen UID:
165802
Concept ID:
C0887941
6.

Parkinsonism

A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
66079
Concept ID:
C0242422
Disease or Syndrome
7.

External ophthalmoplegia

MedGen UID:
57662
Concept ID:
C0162292
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Parkinson's disease

Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
10590
Concept ID:
C0030567
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia

MedGen UID:
799520
Concept ID:
CN202062
Disease or Syndrome
10.

En(a-) phenotype

MedGen UID:
714462
Concept ID:
C1292209
Finding
11.

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia

Initial bilateral ptosis followed by limitation of eye movements in all directions and slowing of saccades. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504513
Concept ID:
CN000553
Finding
12.

External ophthalmoplegia

Paralysis of the external ocular muscles. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504486
Concept ID:
CN000510
Finding
13.

Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 1

POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. These phenotypes exemplify the diversity that can result from mutation of a given gene. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life up to about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, Parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called “chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus,” or “CPEO+”). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Pathogenesis

specific processes that generate the ability of an organism to cause disease [from CHV]

MedGen UID:
195936
Concept ID:
C0699748
Pathologic Function
15.

Autosomal dominant inheritance

Autosomal dominant inheritance refers to genetic conditions that occur when a mutation is present in one copy of a given gene (i.e., the person is heterozygous). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
16.

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a condition characterized by weakness of the eye muscles. The condition typically appears in adults between ages 18 and 40. The most common signs and symptoms of progressive external ophthalmoplegia are drooping eyelids (ptosis), which can affect one or both eyelids, and weakness or paralysis of the muscles that move the eye (ophthalmoplegia). Affected individuals may also have general weakness of the skeletal muscles (myopathy), particularly in the neck, arms, or legs. The weakness may be especially noticeable during exercise (exercise intolerance). Muscle weakness may also cause difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). When the muscle cells of affected individuals are stained and viewed under a microscope, these cells usually appear abnormal. These abnormal muscle cells contain an excess of structures called mitochondria and are known as ragged-red fibers. Additionally, a close study of muscle cells may reveal abnormalities in a type of DNA found in mitochondria called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Affected individuals often have large deletions of genetic material from mtDNA in muscle tissue. Although muscle weakness is the primary symptom of progressive external ophthalmoplegia, this condition can be accompanied by other signs and symptoms. In these instances, the condition is referred to as progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus (PEO+). Additional signs and symptoms can include hearing loss caused by nerve damage in the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss), weakness and loss of sensation in the limbs due to nerve damage (neuropathy), impaired muscle coordination (ataxia), a pattern of movement abnormalities known as parkinsonism, or depression. Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is part of a spectrum of disorders with overlapping signs and symptoms. Similar disorders include other conditions caused by POLG gene mutations, such as ataxia neuropathy spectrum, as well as other mtDNA deletion disorders, such as Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Like progressive external ophthalmoplegia, the other conditions in this spectrum can involve weakness of the eye muscles. However, these conditions have many additional features not shared by most people with progressive external ophthalmoplegia.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
102439
Concept ID:
C0162674
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Finding

The result of an examination or inquiry. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
66215
Concept ID:
C0243095
Finding
18.

Clinical finding

clinical manifestations that can be either objective when observed by a physician, or subjective when perceived by the patient. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
19974
Concept ID:
C0037088
Sign or Symptom
19.

Neuromuscular Diseases

Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are the ones you can control, like in your arms and legs. Your nerve cells, also called neurons, send the messages that control these muscles. When the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between your nervous system and muscles breaks down. As a result, your muscles weaken and waste away. The weakness can lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include: -Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. -Multiple sclerosis. -Myasthenia gravis. -Spinal muscular atrophy. Many neuromuscular diseases are genetic, which means they run in families or there is a mutation in your genes. Sometimes, an immune system disorder can cause them. Most of them have no cure. The goal of treatment is to improve symptoms, increase mobility and lengthen life.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
10323
Concept ID:
C0027868
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Disease Attributes

Clinical characteristics of disease or illness. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
199876
Concept ID:
C0752357
Disease or Syndrome

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