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1.

Anemia

If you have anemia, your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. The most common cause of anemia is not having enough iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that gives the red color to blood. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, and high rates of red blood cell destruction. Conditions that may lead to anemia include. -Heavy periods. -Pregnancy. -Ulcers. -Colon polyps or colon cancer. -Inherited disorders. -A diet that does not have enough iron, folic acid or vitamin B12. -Blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, or cancer. -Aplastic anemia, a condition that can be inherited or acquired. -G6PD deficiency, a metabolic disorder. Anemia can make you feel tired, cold, dizzy, and irritable. You may be short of breath or have a headache. Your doctor will diagnose anemia with a physical exam and blood tests. Treatment depends on the kind of anemia you have. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
1526
Concept ID:
C0002871
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Refractory anemia

MedGen UID:
505814
Concept ID:
CN004874
Finding
3.

Thoracomelic dysplasia

MedGen UID:
336441
Concept ID:
C1848863
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Anemia

A laboratory test result which indicates decreased levels of hemoglobin in a biological specimen. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
56401
Concept ID:
C0162119
Finding
5.

Refractory anemia

A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
286
Concept ID:
C0002893
Disease or Syndrome
6.

5q- syndrome

The 5q- syndrome is a myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by a defect in erythroid differentiation. Patients have severe macrocytic anemia, normal or elevated platelet counts, normal or reduced neutrophil counts, erythroid hypoplasia in the bone marrow, and hypolobated micromegakaryocytes (Ebert et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
196625
Concept ID:
C0740302
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anemia

Acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia is one of a group of disorders known as the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) characterised by ineffective haemopoiesis affecting one or more blood cell lineages (myeloid, erythroid or megakaryocytic) leading to peripheral blood cytopenias and an increased risk of developing leukaemia. Acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia is now more commonly referred to as refractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts or the acronym RARS. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
830854
Concept ID:
CN205709
Finding
8.

Myelodysplasia

MedGen UID:
368407
Concept ID:
C1963099
Finding
9.

Hypoplastic myelodysplasia

Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia (ineffective production) in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages, leading to anemia and cytopenia. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
343695
Concept ID:
C1851971
Finding
10.

Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (clinical)

A myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by an anemia in which 15% or more of the erythroid precursors are ringed sideroblasts. The ring sideroblast is an erythroid precursor in which one third or more of the nucleus is encircled by granules which are positive for iron stain. It occurs primarily in older individuals. The median survival exceeds 5 years. (WHO, 2001) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
220394
Concept ID:
C1264195
Neoplastic Process
11.

Miller Dieker syndrome

LIS1-associated lissencephaly includes Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS), and (rarely) subcortical band heterotopia (SBH). Lissencephaly and SBH are cortical malformations caused by deficient neuronal migration during embryogenesis. Lissencephaly refers to a "smooth brain" with absent gyri (agyria) or abnormally wide gyri (pachygyria). SBH refers to a band of heterotopic gray matter located just beneath the cortex and separated from it by a thin zone of normal white matter. MDS is characterized by lissencephaly, typical facial features, and severe neurologic abnormalities. ILS is characterized by lissencephaly and its direct sequelae: developmental delay, intellectual disability, and seizures. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Hereditary sideroblastic anemia

The essential features of X-linked sideroblastic anemia include the following: (1) a hypochromic microcytic anemia and 2 discrete populations of red blood cells, one microcytic and the other normocytic; (2) marrow ringed sideroblasts, particularly prominent in the late erythroid precursors; (3) a variable hematologic response to pharmacologic doses of pyridoxine; and (4) systemic iron overload secondary to chronic ineffective erythropoiesis. The age of clinical onset of the disorder can vary from in utero to the ninth decade. Whereas males are preferentially affected, females may present with clinically severe anemia. More commonly, female carriers of the disease have an increased red blood cell distribution width and sometimes erythrocyte dimorphism (Fleming, 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Sideroblastic Anemia See also SIDBA2 (205950), caused by mutation in the SLC25A38 gene (610819) on chromosome 3p22; SIDBA3 (616860), caused by mutation in the GLRX5 gene (609588) on chromosome 14q32; and SIDBA4 (182170), caused by mutation in the HSPA9 gene (600548) on chromosome 5q31. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
65119
Concept ID:
C0221018
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematologic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in low blood counts, most commonly anemia, and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 601626). Blood smears and bone marrow biopsies show dysplastic changes in myeloid cells, with abnormal proliferation and differentiation of 1 or more lineages (erythroid, myeloid, megakaryocytic). MDS can be subdivided into several categories based on morphologic characteristics, such as low-grade refractory anemia (RA) or high-grade refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB). Bone marrow biopsies of some patients show ringed sideroblasts (RARS), which reflects abnormal iron staining in mitochondria surrounding the nucleus of erythrocyte progenitors (summary by Delhommeau et al., 2009 and Papaemmanuil et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
44547
Concept ID:
C0026986
Neoplastic Process
14.

Myelodysplasia

MedGen UID:
10231
Concept ID:
C0026985
Congenital Abnormality
15.

Acute myeloid leukemia

CEBPA-associated familial acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is defined as AML in which a heterozygous germline CEBPA pathogenic variant is present in a family in which multiple individuals have AML. In contrast, sporadic CEBPA-associated AML is defined as AML in which a CEBPA pathogenic variant(s) is identified in leukemic cells but not in the non-leukemic cells. Too few individuals with CEBPA-associated familial AML have been reported to be certain about the natural history of the disease. In the majority of individuals, the age of onset of familial AML appears to be earlier than sporadic AML; disease onset has been reported in persons as young as age 1.8 years and older than age 45 years. The prognosis of CEBPA-associated familial AML appears to be favorable compared with sporadic CEBPA-associated AML. Individuals with CEBPA-associated familial AML who have been cured of their initial disease may be at greater risk of developing additional independent leukemic episodes in addition to the risk of relapse due to preexisting clones. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9730
Concept ID:
C0023467
Neoplastic Process
16.

Pancytopenia

An abnormal reduction in numbers of all blood cell types (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
18281
Concept ID:
C0030312
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Sideroblastic anemia

Sideroblastic anemia results from a defect in the incorporation of iron into the heme molecule. A sideroblast is an erythroblast that has stainable deposits of iron in cytoplasm (this can be demonstrated by Prussian blue staining). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
8067
Concept ID:
C0002896
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts

A myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by the presence of 5-19% myeloblasts in the bone marrow or 2-19% blasts in the peripheral blood. It includes two categories: RAEB-1and RAEB-2. Cases with significant bone marrow reticulin fibrosis are called RAEB with fibrosis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
8066
Concept ID:
C0002894
Disease or Syndrome; Neoplastic Process
19.

Hematologic disease

Your blood is living tissue made up of liquid and solids. The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent your blood from doing its job. They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side effects of medicines, and a lack of certain nutrients in your diet. Types of blood disorders include. -Platelet disorders, excessive clotting, and bleeding problems, which affect how your blood clots. -Anemia, which happens when your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. -Cancers of the blood, such as leukemia and myeloma. -Eosinophilic disorders, which are problems with one type of white blood cell.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
5483
Concept ID:
C0018939
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Bone marrow disorder

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting. . If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or how they develop. Leukemia is a cancer in which the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. With aplastic anemia, the bone marrow doesn't make red blood cells. Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone marrow and affect the production of blood cells. Other causes of bone marrow disorders include your genetic makeup and environmental factors. Symptoms of bone marrow diseases vary. Treatments depend on the disorder and how severe it is. They might involve medicines, blood transfusions or a bone marrow transplant. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
2311
Concept ID:
C0005956
Disease or Syndrome
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