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Influenza

MedGen UID:
9466
Concept ID:
C0021400
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Flu, Human; Grippe; Human Flu; Human Influenza; Human Influenzas; Influenza in Human; Influenza in Humans; Influenza, Human; Influenzas; Influenzas, Human
SNOMED CT: Influenza (6142004); Flu (6142004); Grippe (6142004)
 
Gene (location): IFITM3 (11p15.5)
OMIM®: 614680

Definition

Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. The viruses pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth. Between 5% and 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. They may include: -Body or muscle aches. -Chills . -Cough . -Fever . -Headache . -Sore throat . Is it a cold or the flu? Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Flu almost never causes an upset stomach. And stomach flu isn't really flu at all, but gastroenteritis. Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. . The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good hygiene, including hand washing, can also help. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Yang H, Carney PJ, Chang JC, Villanueva JM, Stevens J
J Virol 2015 Apr;89(8):4612-23. Epub 2015 Feb 11 doi: 10.1128/JVI.03456-14. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25673707Free PMC Article
McLean HQ, Thompson MG, Sundaram ME, Kieke BA, Gaglani M, Murthy K, Piedra PA, Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP, Raviotta JM, Jackson ML, Jackson L, Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Monto AS, Meece JK, Thaker SN, Clippard JR, Spencer SM, Fry AM, Belongia EA
J Infect Dis 2015 May 15;211(10):1529-40. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu647. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25406334Free PMC Article
Nayak JL, Richards KA, Yang H, Treanor JJ, Sant AJ
J Infect Dis 2015 May 1;211(9):1408-17. Epub 2014 Nov 6 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu616. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25378637Free PMC Article
Gomaa MR, Kayed AS, Elabd MA, Zeid DA, Zaki SA, El Rifay AS, Sherif LS, McKenzie PP, Webster RG, Webby RJ, Ali MA, Kayali G
J Infect Dis 2015 May 1;211(9):1399-407. Epub 2014 Oct 29 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu529. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25355942Free PMC Article
Sokolow LZ, Naleway AL, Li DK, Shifflett P, Reynolds S, Henninger ML, Ferber JR, Odouli R, Irving SA, Thompson MG; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;212(2):202.e1-11. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25111585

Diagnosis

Puig-Barbera J, Mira-Iglesias A, Tortajada-Girbes M, Lopez-Labrador FX, Belenguer-Varea A, Carballido-Fernandez M, Carbonell-Franco E, Carratala-Munuera C, Limon-Ramirez R, Mollar-Maseres J, Del Carmen Otero-Reigada M, Schwarz-Chavarri G, Tuells J, Gil-Guillen V; Valencia Hospital Network for the Study of Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Disease
Euro Surveill 2015 Feb 26;20(8) PMID: 25742432
Guo C, Xie X, Li H, Zhao P, Zhao X, Sun J, Wang H, Liu Y, Li Y, Hu Q, Hu J, Li Y
Exp Mol Pathol 2015 Feb;98(1):79-84. Epub 2014 Dec 20 doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2014.12.005. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25533547
Sokolow LZ, Naleway AL, Li DK, Shifflett P, Reynolds S, Henninger ML, Ferber JR, Odouli R, Irving SA, Thompson MG; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;212(2):202.e1-11. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25111585
Meijer A, Rebelo-de-Andrade H, Correia V, Besselaar T, Drager-Dayal R, Fry A, Gregory V, Gubareva L, Kageyama T, Lackenby A, Lo J, Odagiri T, Pereyaslov D, Siqueira MM, Takashita E, Tashiro M, Wang D, Wong S, Zhang W, Daniels RS, Hurt AC
Antiviral Res 2014 Oct;110:31-41. Epub 2014 Jul 17 doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.07.001. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25043638
Wong CK, Tsang GC, Chan KH, Li OT, Peiris M, Poon LL
J Med Virol 2014 Dec;86(12):2171-6. Epub 2014 Apr 24 doi: 10.1002/jmv.23955. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24760697Free PMC Article

Therapy

Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Malosh RE, Fry AM, Thompson MG, Monto AS
J Infect Dis 2015 May 15;211(10):1519-28. Epub 2014 Nov 21 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu650. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25416812Free PMC Article
Fossum E, Grødeland G, Terhorst D, Tveita AA, Vikse E, Mjaaland S, Henri S, Malissen B, Bogen B
Eur J Immunol 2015 Feb;45(2):624-35. Epub 2014 Dec 28 doi: 10.1002/eji.201445080. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25410055
McLean HQ, Thompson MG, Sundaram ME, Kieke BA, Gaglani M, Murthy K, Piedra PA, Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP, Raviotta JM, Jackson ML, Jackson L, Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Monto AS, Meece JK, Thaker SN, Clippard JR, Spencer SM, Fry AM, Belongia EA
J Infect Dis 2015 May 15;211(10):1529-40. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu647. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25406334Free PMC Article
Kramer SC, Bansal S
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Jun;143(8):1621-31. Epub 2014 Oct 2 doi: 10.1017/S0950268814002520. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25274250
Haber M, An Q, Foppa IM, Shay DK, Ferdinands JM, Orenstein WA
Epidemiol Infect 2015 May;143(7):1417-26. Epub 2014 Aug 22 doi: 10.1017/S0950268814002179. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25147970Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Guo C, Xie X, Li H, Zhao P, Zhao X, Sun J, Wang H, Liu Y, Li Y, Hu Q, Hu J, Li Y
Exp Mol Pathol 2015 Feb;98(1):79-84. Epub 2014 Dec 20 doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2014.12.005. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25533547
Sridhar S, Begom S, Hoschler K, Bermingham A, Adamson W, Carman W, Riley S, Lalvani A
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015 Feb 1;191(3):325-32. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201410-1798OC. PMID: 25506631Free PMC Article
Jules A, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Talbot HK, Williams JV, Poehling KA, Chaves SS, Edwards KM, Schaffner W, Shay DK, Griffin MR
Pediatrics 2015 Jan;135(1):e66-74. Epub 2014 Dec 8 doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1168. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25489015Free PMC Article
Feng Y, Hu L, Lu S, Chen Q, Zheng Y, Zeng D, Zhang J, Zhang A, Chen L, Hu Y, Zhang Z
J Clin Pathol 2015 Jan;68(1):57-63. Epub 2014 Nov 6 doi: 10.1136/jclinpath-2014-202441. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25378539
Fell DB, Platt RW, Lanes A, Wilson K, Kaufman JS, Basso O, Buckeridge D
BJOG 2015 Jan;122(1):17-26. Epub 2014 Jul 10 doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12977. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25040307

Clinical prediction guides

Lam TT, Zhou B, Wang J, Chai Y, Shen Y, Chen X, Ma C, Hong W, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Duan L, Chen P, Jiang J, Zhang Y, Li L, Poon LL, Webby RJ, Smith DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Holmes EC, Guan Y, Zhu H
Nature 2015 Jun 4;522(7554):102-5. Epub 2015 Mar 11 doi: 10.1038/nature14348. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25762140
Nita-Lazar M, Banerjee A, Feng C, Amin MN, Frieman MB, Chen WH, Cross AS, Wang LX, Vasta GR
Mol Immunol 2015 May;65(1):1-16. Epub 2015 Jan 16 doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.12.010. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25597246Free PMC Article
Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Malosh RE, Fry AM, Thompson MG, Monto AS
J Infect Dis 2015 May 15;211(10):1519-28. Epub 2014 Nov 21 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu650. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25416812Free PMC Article
Fossum E, Grødeland G, Terhorst D, Tveita AA, Vikse E, Mjaaland S, Henri S, Malissen B, Bogen B
Eur J Immunol 2015 Feb;45(2):624-35. Epub 2014 Dec 28 doi: 10.1002/eji.201445080. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25410055
Sokolow LZ, Naleway AL, Li DK, Shifflett P, Reynolds S, Henninger ML, Ferber JR, Odouli R, Irving SA, Thompson MG; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;212(2):202.e1-11. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25111585

Recent systematic reviews

Fell DB, Platt RW, Lanes A, Wilson K, Kaufman JS, Basso O, Buckeridge D
BJOG 2015 Jan;122(1):17-26. Epub 2014 Jul 10 doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12977. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25040307
Sullivan SG, Feng S, Cowling BJ
Expert Rev Vaccines 2014 Dec;13(12):1571-91. Epub 2014 Oct 28 doi: 10.1586/14760584.2014.966695. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25348015Free PMC Article
Biggerstaff M, Cauchemez S, Reed C, Gambhir M, Finelli L
BMC Infect Dis 2014 Sep 4;14:480. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-480. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25186370Free PMC Article
Ambrose CS, Wu X, Caspard H, Belshe RB
Vaccine 2014 Sep 29;32(43):5546-8. Epub 2014 Aug 12 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.097. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25131746
Remschmidt C, Wichmann O, Harder T
Vaccine 2014 Sep 29;32(43):5585-92. Epub 2014 Aug 12 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.101. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25131742

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