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Influenza

MedGen UID:
9466
Concept ID:
C0021400
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Flu, Human; Grippe; Human Flu; Human Influenza; Human Influenzas; Influenza in Human; Influenza in Humans; Influenza, Human; Influenzas; Influenzas, Human
SNOMED CT: Influenza (6142004); Flu (6142004); Grippe (6142004)
 
Gene (location): IFITM3 (11p15.5)
OMIM®: 614680

Definition

Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. The viruses pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth. Between 5% and 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. They may include . -Body or muscle aches. -Chills . -Cough . -Fever . -Headache . -Sore throat . Is it a cold or the flu? Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Flu almost never causes an upset stomach. And stomach flu isn't really flu at all, but gastroenteritis. Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. . The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good hygiene, including hand washing, can also help. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Meltzer MI, Patel A, Ajao A, Nystrom SV, Koonin LM
Clin Infect Dis 2015 May 1;60 Suppl 1:S52-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ089. PMID: 25878301
Morton B, Tang L, Gale R, Kelly M, Robertson H, Mogk M, Robin N, Welters I
Br J Anaesth 2015 Jun;114(6):927-33. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/bja/aev042. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25829394
Kamal RP, Kumar A, Davis CT, Tzeng WP, Nguyen T, Donis RO, Katz JM, York IA
J Virol 2015 Jun;89(11):5835-46. Epub 2015 Mar 18 doi: 10.1128/JVI.03137-14. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25787281Free PMC Article
Gomaa MR, Kayed AS, Elabd MA, Zeid DA, Zaki SA, El Rifay AS, Sherif LS, McKenzie PP, Webster RG, Webby RJ, Ali MA, Kayali G
J Infect Dis 2015 May 1;211(9):1399-407. Epub 2014 Oct 29 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu529. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25355942Free PMC Article
Sokolow LZ, Naleway AL, Li DK, Shifflett P, Reynolds S, Henninger ML, Ferber JR, Odouli R, Irving SA, Thompson MG; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;212(2):202.e1-11. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25111585

Diagnosis

Morton B, Tang L, Gale R, Kelly M, Robertson H, Mogk M, Robin N, Welters I
Br J Anaesth 2015 Jun;114(6):927-33. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/bja/aev042. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25829394
Haber P, Moro PL, Cano M, Lewis P, Stewart B, Shimabukuro TT
Vaccine 2015 Apr 15;33(16):1987-92. Epub 2015 Feb 9 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.080. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25678241
Sokolow LZ, Naleway AL, Li DK, Shifflett P, Reynolds S, Henninger ML, Ferber JR, Odouli R, Irving SA, Thompson MG; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;212(2):202.e1-11. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25111585
Khandaker G, Zurynski Y, Ridley G, Buttery J, Marshall H, Richmond PC, Royle J, Gold M, Walls T, Whitehead B, McIntyre P, Wood N, Booy R, Elliott EJ
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2014 Nov;8(6):636-45. Epub 2014 Sep 27 doi: 10.1111/irv.12286. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25263176Free PMC Article
Wong CK, Tsang GC, Chan KH, Li OT, Peiris M, Poon LL
J Med Virol 2014 Dec;86(12):2171-6. Epub 2014 Apr 24 doi: 10.1002/jmv.23955. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24760697Free PMC Article

Therapy

Biggerstaff M, Reed C, Swerdlow DL, Gambhir M, Graitcer S, Finelli L, Borse RH, Rasmussen SA, Meltzer MI, Bridges CB
Clin Infect Dis 2015 May 1;60 Suppl 1:S20-9. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu1175. PMID: 25878298
Morton B, Tang L, Gale R, Kelly M, Robertson H, Mogk M, Robin N, Welters I
Br J Anaesth 2015 Jun;114(6):927-33. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/bja/aev042. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25829394
Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Malosh RE, Fry AM, Thompson MG, Monto AS
J Infect Dis 2015 May 15;211(10):1519-28. Epub 2014 Nov 21 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu650. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25416812Free PMC Article
Fossum E, Grødeland G, Terhorst D, Tveita AA, Vikse E, Mjaaland S, Henri S, Malissen B, Bogen B
Eur J Immunol 2015 Feb;45(2):624-35. Epub 2014 Dec 28 doi: 10.1002/eji.201445080. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25410055
Kramer SC, Bansal S
Epidemiol Infect 2015 Jun;143(8):1621-31. Epub 2014 Oct 2 doi: 10.1017/S0950268814002520. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25274250

Prognosis

Morton B, Tang L, Gale R, Kelly M, Robertson H, Mogk M, Robin N, Welters I
Br J Anaesth 2015 Jun;114(6):927-33. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/bja/aev042. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25829394
Haber P, Moro PL, Cano M, Lewis P, Stewart B, Shimabukuro TT
Vaccine 2015 Apr 15;33(16):1987-92. Epub 2015 Feb 9 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.080. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25678241
Chen CH, Chiu PJ, Chih YC, Yeh GL
Vaccine 2015 Apr 15;33(16):1993-8. Epub 2015 Jan 19 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.032. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25613722
Jules A, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, Talbot HK, Williams JV, Poehling KA, Chaves SS, Edwards KM, Schaffner W, Shay DK, Griffin MR
Pediatrics 2015 Jan;135(1):e66-74. Epub 2014 Dec 8 doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1168. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25489015Free PMC Article
Belongia EA, Sundaram ME, McClure DL, Meece JK, Ferdinands J, VanWormer JJ
Vaccine 2015 Jan 1;33(1):246-51. Epub 2014 Jun 21 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.06.052. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24962752

Clinical prediction guides

Morton B, Tang L, Gale R, Kelly M, Robertson H, Mogk M, Robin N, Welters I
Br J Anaesth 2015 Jun;114(6):927-33. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/bja/aev042. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25829394
Lam TT, Zhou B, Wang J, Chai Y, Shen Y, Chen X, Ma C, Hong W, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Duan L, Chen P, Jiang J, Zhang Y, Li L, Poon LL, Webby RJ, Smith DK, Leung GM, Peiris JS, Holmes EC, Guan Y, Zhu H
Nature 2015 Jun 4;522(7554):102-5. Epub 2015 Mar 11 doi: 10.1038/nature14348. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25762140
Doshi S, Silk BJ, Dutt D, Ahmed M, Cohen AL, Taylor TH, Brooks WA, Goswami D, Luby SP, Fry AM, Ram PK
Trop Med Int Health 2015 Jun;20(6):719-29. Epub 2015 Mar 9 doi: 10.1111/tmi.12475. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25682788
Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Malosh RE, Fry AM, Thompson MG, Monto AS
J Infect Dis 2015 May 15;211(10):1519-28. Epub 2014 Nov 21 doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu650. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25416812Free PMC Article
Sokolow LZ, Naleway AL, Li DK, Shifflett P, Reynolds S, Henninger ML, Ferber JR, Odouli R, Irving SA, Thompson MG; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Feb;212(2):202.e1-11. Epub 2014 Aug 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.004. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25111585

Recent systematic reviews

Morton B, Tang L, Gale R, Kelly M, Robertson H, Mogk M, Robin N, Welters I
Br J Anaesth 2015 Jun;114(6):927-33. Epub 2015 Mar 31 doi: 10.1093/bja/aev042. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25829394
Fell DB, Platt RW, Lanes A, Wilson K, Kaufman JS, Basso O, Buckeridge D
BJOG 2015 Jan;122(1):17-26. Epub 2014 Jul 10 doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12977. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25040307
Sullivan SG, Feng S, Cowling BJ
Expert Rev Vaccines 2014 Dec;13(12):1571-91. Epub 2014 Oct 28 doi: 10.1586/14760584.2014.966695. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25348015Free PMC Article
Biggerstaff M, Cauchemez S, Reed C, Gambhir M, Finelli L
BMC Infect Dis 2014 Sep 4;14:480. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-480. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25186370Free PMC Article
Ambrose CS, Wu X, Caspard H, Belshe RB
Vaccine 2014 Sep 29;32(43):5546-8. Epub 2014 Aug 12 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.097. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25131746

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