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Results: 4

1.

beta-lapachone

A poorly soluble, ortho-naphthoquinone with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitizing activity. Beta-lapachone (b-lap) is bioactivated by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), creating a futile oxidoreduction that generates high levels of superoxide. In turn, the highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) interact with DNA, thereby causing single-strand DNA breaks and calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores. Eventually, the extensive DNA damage causes hyperactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme facilitating DNA repair, accompanied by rapid depletion of NAD+/ATP nucleotide levels. As a result, a caspase-independent and ER-stress induced mu-calpain-mediated cell death occurs in NQO1-overexpressing tumor cells. NQO1, a flavoprotein and two-electron oxidoreductase, is overexpressed in a variety of tumors. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
14991
Concept ID:
C0053471
Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Down-regulation

A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
4386
Concept ID:
C0013081
Molecular Function
3.

Carcinoma

type of cancer [from CHV]

MedGen UID:
2867
Concept ID:
C0007097
Neoplastic Process
4.

Carcinoma of prostate

One of the most common malignant tumors afflicting men. The majority of carcinomas arise in the peripheral zone and a minority occur in the central or the transitional zone of the prostate gland. Grossly, prostatic carcinomas appear as ill-defined yellow areas of discoloration in the prostate gland lobes. Adenocarcinomas represent the overwhelming majority of prostatic carcinomas. Prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) serum test is widely used as a screening test for the early detection of prostatic carcinoma. Treatment options include radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, androgen ablation and cryotherapy. Watchful waiting or surveillance alone is an option for older patients with low-grade or low-stage disease. -- 2002 [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108657
Concept ID:
C0600139
Neoplastic Process

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