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Results: 1 to 20 of 38

1.

Gastrin

Gastrin (101 aa, ~11 kDa) is encoded by the human GAST gene. This protein plays a role in the modulation of food digestion by the gastrointestinal system. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
83946
Concept ID:
C0376180
Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Adenocarcinoma

A malignant neoplasm arising from glandular cells. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
122
Concept ID:
C0001418
Neoplastic Process
3.

Proliferation

Growth and reproduction of new similar forms, e.g. cells, buds, or offspring. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
137720
Concept ID:
C0334094
Pathologic Function
4.

Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

A malignant tumor with glandular differentiation arising predominantly from Barrett mucosa in the lower third of the esophagus. Rare examples of esophageal adenocarcinoma deriving from ectopic gastric mucosa in the upper esophagus have also been reported. Grossly, esophageal adenocarcinomas are similar to esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Microscopically, adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of Barrett esophagus are typically papillary and/or tubular. The prognosis is poor. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
124636
Concept ID:
C0279628
Neoplastic Process
5.

Barrett's esophagus

Barrett esophagus, or Barrett metaplasia, describes the phenotypic change of normal esophageal squamous epithelium to a columnar and intestinal-type epithelium. This metaplastic change is important because patients with Barrett esophagus have an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The main cause of Barrett metaplasia is gastroesophageal reflux (GER; 109350). The retrograde movement of acid and bile salts from the stomach into the esophagus in this disease causes prolonged injury to the esophageal epithelium and induces chronic esophagitis, which in turn is believed to trigger the pathologic changes (summary by Wong et al., 2005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
2551
Concept ID:
C0004763
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Cholecystokinin

Hormone secreted by upper intestinal mucosa on contact with gastric contents, cholecystokini; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder. Also, a neurotransmitter. [from PSY]

MedGen UID:
40260
Concept ID:
C0008328
Pharmacologic Substance
7.

Phosphorylation

A process in which a phosphate group is added to a molecule, such as a sugar or a protein. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
10742
Concept ID:
C0031715
Molecular Function
8.

Metaplasia

A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
7571
Concept ID:
C0025568
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
9.

Colon cancer

MedGen UID:
446464
Concept ID:
CN002715
Finding
10.

Familial colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is common in both men and women. In addition to lifestyle and environmental risk factors, gene defects can contribute to an inherited predisposition to CRC. CRC is caused by changes in different molecular pathogenic pathways, such as chromosomal instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and microsatellite instability. Chromosome instability is the most common alteration and is present in almost 85% of all cases (review by Schweiger et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Colorectal Cancer Mutations in a single gene result in a marked predisposition to colorectal cancer in 2 distinct syndromes: familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; 175100) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; see 120435). FAP is caused by mutations in the APC gene (611731), whereas HNPCC is caused by mutations in several genes, including MSH2 (609309), MLH1 (120436), PMS1 (600258), PMS2 (600259), MSH6 (600678), TGFBR2 (190182), and MLH3 (604395). Epigenetic silencing of MSH2 results in a form of HNPCC (see HNPCC8, 613244). Other colorectal cancer syndromes include autosomal recessive adenomatous polyposis (608456), which is caused by mutations in the MUTYH gene (604933), and oligodontia-colorectal cancer syndrome (608615), which is caused by mutations in the AXIN2 gene (604025). The CHEK2 gene (604373) has been implicated in susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Finnish patients. A germline mutation in the PLA2G2A gene (172411) was identified in a patient with colorectal cancer. Germline susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer have also been identified. CRCS1 (608812) is conferred by mutation in the GALNT12 gene (610290) on chromosome 9q22; CRCS2 (611469) maps to chromosome 8q24; CRCS3 (612229) is conferred by variation in the SMAD7 gene (602932) on chromosome 18; CRCS4 (601228) is conferred by variation on 15q that causes increased and ectopic expression of the GREM1 gene (603054); CRCS5 (612230) maps to chromosome 10p14; CRCS6 (612231) maps to chromosome 8q23; CRCS7 (612232) maps to chromosome 11q23; CRCS8 (612589) maps to chromosome 14q22; CRCS9 (612590) maps to 16q22; CRCS10 (612591) is conferred by mutation in the POLD1 gene (174761) on chromosome 19q13; CRCS11 (612592) maps to chromosome 20p12; and CRCS12 (615083) is conferred by mutation in the POLE gene (174762) on chromosome 12q24. Somatic mutations in many different genes, including KRAS (190070), PIK3CA (171834), BRAF (164757), CTNNB1 (116806), FGFR3 (134934), AXIN2 (604025), AKT1 (164730), MCC (159350), MYH11 (160745), and PARK2 (602544) have been identified in colorectal cancer. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
430218
Concept ID:
CN029768
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Carcinoma of colon

Cancer that forms in the tissues of the colon (the longest part of the large intestine). Most colon cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
147065
Concept ID:
C0699790
Neoplastic Process
12.

Finding

The result of an examination or inquiry. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
66215
Concept ID:
C0243095
Finding
13.

Clinical finding

clinical manifestations that can be either objective when observed by a physician, or subjective when perceived by the patient. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
19974
Concept ID:
C0037088
Sign or Symptom
14.

Competitive binding

The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
14124
Concept ID:
C0005458
Molecular Function
15.

Mitogens

A soluble substance, usually a protein, that induces mitosis in resting cells, thereby causing cell proliferation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
7665
Concept ID:
C0026249
Pharmacologic Substance
16.

Epithelial Neoplasm

neoplasm of epithelial origin, ranging from benign (adenoma and papilloma) to malignant (carcinoma). [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
277963
Concept ID:
C1368683
Neoplastic Process
17.

Carmol

MedGen UID:
152591
Concept ID:
C0728793
Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Basodexan

MedGen UID:
147554
Concept ID:
C0729126
Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Carcinomatosis

A condition in which cancer is spread widely throughout the body. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104704
Concept ID:
C0205699
Neoplastic Process
20.

Cribriform Carcinoma

A carcinoma characterized by the presence of a cribriform architectural pattern. Representative examples include the intraductal cribriform breast carcinoma and invasive cribriform breast carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104694
Concept ID:
C0205643
Neoplastic Process

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