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1.

Glucose

A hexose with an aldehyde group; in which each of the 5 remaining carbons other than the aldehyde group has one hydroxyl group in the R,S,R, and R configuration counting from the first hydroxyl containing carbon next to the aldehyde in the straight chain (Fisher) projection; otherwise all carbons have exclusively hydrogens. Occurs mostly as pyran (6-membered oxygen containing ring or oxane) and rarely as furan (5-membered oxygen containing ring) or straight chain. When glucose forms a ring an additional ""anomeric"" asymmetric carbon is created which is denoted as ""alpha"" or ""beta"". For isomers see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
42238
Concept ID:
C0017725
Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Mass of body structure

In medicine, a lump in the body. It may be caused by the abnormal growth of cells, a cyst, hormonal changes, or an immune reaction. A mass may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
108287
Concept ID:
C0577559
Finding
3.

Thiazolidinediones

THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
226242
Concept ID:
C1257987
Pharmacologic Substance
4.

rosiglitazone

The active ingredient in a drug that helps control the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Rosiglitazone stops cells from growing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of thiazolidinedione and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
129650
Concept ID:
C0289313
Pharmacologic Substance
5.

Insulinoma

A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
43907
Concept ID:
C0021670
Neoplastic Process
6.

Hyperplasia

An abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
43784
Concept ID:
C0020507
Pathologic Function
7.

Obesity

Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too much. The weight may come from muscle, bone, fat, and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height. . Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for each person. Factors that might affect your weight include your genetic makeup, overeating, eating high-fat foods, and not being physically active. . Being obese increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and some cancers. If you are obese, losing even 5 to 10 percent of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases. For example, that means losing 10 to 20 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Insulin

Insulin (51 aa, ~6 kDa) is encoded by the human INS gene. This protein is involved in the direct regulation of glucose metabolism. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
5827
Concept ID:
C0021641
Pharmacologic Substance
9.

Insulinoma

A type of tumor of the pancreatic beta cells that secretes excess insulin and can result in hypoglycemia. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506690
Concept ID:
CN167923
Finding
10.

Error occurred: cannot get document summary

ID:
449670

11.

Obesity

MedGen UID:
368429
Concept ID:
C1963185
Finding
12.

Proliferation

Growth and reproduction of new similar forms, e.g. cells, buds, or offspring. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
137720
Concept ID:
C0334094
Pathologic Function
13.

Fat

The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
5132
Concept ID:
C0015677
Pharmacologic Substance
14.

Insulins

Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
760846
Concept ID:
C3537244
Pharmacologic Substance
15.

Insulin [EPC]

MedGen UID:
453109
Concept ID:
C1579433
Pharmacologic Substance
16.

Antidiabetics

Any substance used to reduce hyperglycemia or treat disorders associated with diabetes. Based on their mechanism of action, this class of agents can be classified to the following groups: directly acting insulomimetics, which activates insulin receptors; indirectly acting insulinomimetics, which increase insulin release such as sulfonylureas or which potentiate the effect of insulin such as metformin; those act directly on the metabolism of glucose such as inhibitors of glucosidases and inhibitors of aldose reductase. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
183179
Concept ID:
C0935929
Pharmacologic Substance
17.

Sugar

A white crystalline carbohydrate, typically sucrose, used as a sweetener and preservative. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
69157
Concept ID:
C0242209
Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Pancreatic Hormones

Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
14585
Concept ID:
C0030292
Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Novolin

MedGen UID:
10388
Concept ID:
C0028467
Pharmacologic Substance
20.

Iletin

MedGen UID:
7012
Concept ID:
C0020884
Pharmacologic Substance

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