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Results: 1 to 20 of 41

1.

DNA damage

Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
3880
Concept ID:
C0012860
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
2.

Antioxidants

Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food, or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. Free radicals can damage cells, and may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. . Antioxidant substances include : - Beta-carotene . - Lutein . - Lycopene. - Selenium. - Vitamin A. - Vitamin C. - Vitamin E. Antioxidants are found in many foods. These include fruits and vegetables, nuts, grains, and some meats, poultry and fish. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
1608
Concept ID:
C0003402
Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Visual Suppression

MedGen UID:
526147
Concept ID:
C0221103
Pathologic Function
4.

Carcinogenesis

The origin, production or development of cancer through genotypic and phenotypic changes which upset the normal balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Carcinogenesis generally requires a constellation of steps, which may occur quickly or over a period of many years. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
154544
Concept ID:
C0596263
Neoplastic Process
5.

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Any one of the substituted benzimidazole compounds with anti-ulcer activity. A proton pump inhibitor is orally administered in the neutrally charged, inactive form and, upon entering the acidic environment of the parietal cell, gets protonated and converted into its active form. The active form will covalently and irreversibly bind to the proton pump, the H+/K+-ATPase, located on the surface of parietal cells. This leads to an inhibition of the transport of hydrogen ions, in exchange for potassium ions, into the gastric lumen and results in an inhibition of gastric acid secretion. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
87634
Concept ID:
C0358591
Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Hypochlorhydria

MedGen UID:
86935
Concept ID:
C0079581
Pathologic Function
7.

Vitamins

Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. There are 13 vitamins your body needs. They are vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement. . Each vitamin has specific jobs. If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may develop a deficiency disease. For example, if you don't get enough vitamin D, you could develop rickets. Some vitamins may help prevent medical problems. Vitamin A prevents night blindness. The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In some cases, you may need to take a daily multivitamin for optimal health. However, high doses of some vitamins can make you sick.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
12117
Concept ID:
C0042890
Pharmacologic Substance
8.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant. Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food, or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. Vitamin E also plays a role in your immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils, margarine, nuts, seeds, and leafy greens. Vitamin E is also added to foods like cereals. Most people get enough vitamin E from the foods they eat. People with certain disorders, such as liver diseases, cystic fibrosis, and Crohn's disease may need extra vitamin E. . Vitamin E supplements may be harmful for people who take blood thinners and other medicines. Check with your health care provider before taking the supplements. NIH: National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
12116
Concept ID:
C0042874
Pharmacologic Substance
9.

Ascorbic Acid

Vitamin C is an antioxidant. Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food, or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. Vitamin C is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include citrus, red and green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, and greens. Some juices and cereals have added vitamin C. Some people may need extra vitamin C:: -Pregnant/breastfeeding women. -Smokers. -People recovering from surgery. -Burn victims.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
2092
Concept ID:
C0003968
Pharmacologic Substance
10.

Does not

MedGen UID:
721427
Concept ID:
C1299585
Finding
11.

Vitamin supplementation

MedGen UID:
549889
Concept ID:
C0302837
Pharmacologic Substance
12.

Stomach cancer

A cancer arising in any part of the stomach. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506674
Concept ID:
CN167852
Finding
13.

Gastric Carcinoma

The stomach is an organ between the esophagus and the small intestine. It mixes food with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people who have it are over age 65. Your risk of getting it is also higher if you: -Have had a Helicobacter pylori infection. -Have had stomach inflammation. -Are a man. -Eat lots of salted, smoked, or pickled foods . -Smoke cigarettes . -Have a family history of stomach cancer. It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in its early stages. Indigestion and stomach discomfort can be symptoms of early cancer, but other problems can cause the same symptoms. In advanced cases, there may be blood in your stool, vomiting, unexplained weight loss, jaundice, or trouble swallowing. Doctors diagnose stomach cancer with a physical exam, blood and imaging tests, an endoscopy, and a biopsy. Because it is often found late, it can be hard to treat stomach cancer. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation or a combination. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
147066
Concept ID:
C0699791
Neoplastic Process
14.

Malignant Gastric Neoplasm

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm involving the stomach. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
44264
Concept ID:
C0024623
Neoplastic Process
15.

Neoplasm of stomach

In a review article on the genetic predisposition to gastric cancer, Bevan and Houlston (1999) concluded that several genes may be associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is a manifestation of a number of inherited cancer predisposition syndromes, including hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC1; see 120435), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; 175100), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS; 175200), Cowden disease (CD; 158350), and the Li-Fraumeni syndrome (151623). See also hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC; 137215). Canedo et al. (2007) provided a review of genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori (see 600263). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
20958
Concept ID:
C0038356
Neoplastic Process
16.

Inhibition

MedGen UID:
5809
Concept ID:
C0021469
Molecular Function
17.

Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
226255
Concept ID:
C1258062
Molecular Function
18.

Hybrin

MedGen UID:
154649
Concept ID:
C0600163
Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Condition, Preneoplastic

cellular state in which there is evidence of intracellular changes which could lead to a neoplastic condition. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
129147
Concept ID:
C0282313
Neoplastic Process
20.

Congenital anomaly of digestive system

Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
78584
Concept ID:
C0266015
Congenital Abnormality

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