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Results: 9

1.

Cranioosteoarthropathy

MedGen UID:
394824
Concept ID:
C2678439
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Corpus callosum agenesis

The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Aplasia cutis congenita

Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is defined as congenital localized absence of skin. The skin appears as a thin, transparent membrane through which the underlying structures are visible. The location is usually on the scalp (Evers et al., 1995). Approximately 20 to 30% of cases have underlying osseous involvement (Elliott and Teebi, 1997). Autosomal dominant inheritance is most common, but recessive inheritance has also been reported. Cutaneous aplasia of the scalp vertex also occurs in Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (243800) and Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS; 100300). A defect in the scalp is sometimes found in cases of trisomy 13 and in about 15% of cases of deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4, the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS; 194190) (Hirschhorn et al., 1965; Fryns et al., 1973). Evers et al. (1995) provided a list of disorders associated with aplasia cutis congenita, classified according to etiology. They also tabulated points of particular significance in history taking and examination of patients with ACC. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
79390
Concept ID:
C0282160
Congenital Abnormality
4.

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages before you even know you are pregnant. Drinking alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs).Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with: -Learning and remembering. -Understanding and following directions. -Controlling emotions. -Communicating and socializing. -Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow eyes, growth problems and nervous system abnormalities. FASDs last a lifetime. There is no cure for FASDs. Treatments can help. These include medicines to help with some symptoms and behavior therapy. No one treatment is right for every child. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
8820
Concept ID:
C0015923
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 3

Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a peroxisomal disorder characterized by disproportionately short stature primarily affecting the proximal parts of the extremities, a typical facial appearance including a broad nasal bridge, epicanthus, high-arched palate, dysplastic external ears, and micrognathia, congenital contractures, characteristic ocular involvement, dwarfism, and severe mental retardation with spasticity. Biochemically, plasmalogen synthesis and phytanic acid alpha-oxidation are defective. Most patients die in the first decade of life. RCDP1 is the most frequent form of RCDP (summary by Wanders and Waterham, 2005). Whereas RCDP1 is a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD), RCDP3 is classified as a single peroxisome enzyme deficiency (Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, see 215100. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
374012
Concept ID:
C1838612
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Deficiency of 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase

2-Methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (MBD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of impaired isoleucine degradation. It is most often ascertained via newborn screening and is usually clinically asymptomatic, although some patients have been reported to have delayed development and neurologic signs. Therefore, the clinical relevance of the deficiency is unclear (Sass et al.., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
355324
Concept ID:
C1864912
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Deficiency of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase

3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during prolonged periods without food (fasting). Initial signs and symptoms of this disorder typically occur during infancy or early childhood and can include poor appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and lack of energy (lethargy). Affected individuals can also have muscle weakness (hypotonia), liver problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), and abnormally high levels of insulin (hyperinsulinism). Insulin controls the amount of sugar that moves from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Individuals with 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency are also at risk for complications such as seizures, life-threatening heart and breathing problems, coma, and sudden death. This condition may explain some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which is defined as unexplained death in babies younger than 1 year. Problems related to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency can be triggered by periods of fasting or by illnesses such as viral infections. This disorder is sometimes mistaken for Reye syndrome, a severe disorder that may develop in children while they appear to be recovering from viral infections such as chicken pox or flu. Most cases of Reye syndrome are associated with the use of aspirin during these viral infections.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
266222
Concept ID:
C1291230
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA deacylase deficiency

3-Hydroxyisobutyrl-CoA hydrolase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, neurodegeneration, increased lactic acid, and brain lesions in the basal ganglia (summary by Ferdinandusse et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
83349
Concept ID:
C0342738
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency

The term "organic acidemia" or "organic aciduria" (OA) applies to a group of disorders characterized by the excretion of non-amino organic acids in urine. Most organic acidemias result from dysfunction of a specific step in amino acid catabolism, usually the result of deficient enzyme activity. The majority of the classic organic acid disorders are caused by abnormal amino acid catabolism of branched-chain amino acids or lysine. They include maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, isovaleric acidemia, biotin-unresponsive 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency, ketothiolase deficiency, and glutaricacidemia type I (GA I). A neonate affected with an OA is usually well at birth and for the first few days of life. The usual clinical presentation is that of toxic encephalopathy and includes vomiting, poor feeding, neurologic symptoms such as seizures and abnormal tone, and lethargy progressing to coma. Outcome is enhanced by diagnosis and treatment in the first ten days of life. In the older child or adolescent, variant forms of the OAs can present as loss of intellectual function, ataxia or other focal neurologic signs, Reye syndrome, recurrent ketoacidosis, or psychiatric symptoms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78691
Concept ID:
C0268600
Disease or Syndrome

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