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1.

Even-plus syndrome

EVEN-PLUS syndrome is characterized by prenatal-onset short stature, vertebral and epiphyseal changes, microtia, midface hypoplasia with flat nose and triangular nares, cardiac malformations, and other findings including anal atresia, hypodontia, and aplasia cutis. The features overlap those reported in patients with CODAS syndrome (600373; Royer-Bertrand et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
880110
Concept ID:
CN235493
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Oocyte maturation defect 2

MedGen UID:
879792
Concept ID:
CN235180
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 22 with or without frontotemporal dementia

MedGen UID:
830697
Concept ID:
CN225414
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 5

MedGen UID:
816737
Concept ID:
C3810407
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6

MedGen UID:
776953
Concept ID:
CN186681
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 16

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-16 is a progressive neurologic disorder characterized by truncal and limb ataxia resulting in gait instability. Most patients have onset in the teenage years, although earlier and later onset have been reported. Additional features may include dysarthria, nystagmus, spasticity of the lower limbs, and mild peripheral sensory neuropathy (summary by Shi et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
776949
Concept ID:
CN186321
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 1

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations (CDCBM) is a disorder of aberrant neuronal migration and disturbed axonal guidance. Affected individuals have mild to severe mental retardation, strabismus, axial hypotonia, and spasticity. Brain imaging shows variable malformations of cortical development, including polymicrogyria, gyral disorganization, and fusion of the basal ganglia, as well as thin corpus callosum, hypoplastic brainstem, and dysplastic cerebellar vermis. Extraocular muscles are not involved (summary by Poirier et al., 2010). Mutation in the TUBB3 gene can also cause congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles-3A (CFEOM3A; 600638), a milder and somewhat different neurologic phenotype. Genetic Heterogeneity of Complex Cortical Dysplasia With Other Brain Malformations See also CDCBM2 (615282), caused by mutation in the KIF5C gene (604593) on chromosome 2q23; CDCBM3 (615411), caused by mutation in the KIF2A gene (602591) on chromosome 5q12; CDCBM4 (615412), caused by mutation in the TUBG1 gene (191135) on chromosome 17q21; CDCBM5 (615763), caused by mutation in the TUBB2A gene (615101) on chromosome 6p25; CDCBM6 (615771), caused by mutation in the TUBB gene (191130) on chromosome 6p21; CDCBM7 (610031), caused by mutation in the TUBB2B gene (612850) on chromosome 6p25; and CDCBM8 (613180), caused by mutation in the TUBA8 gene (605742) on chromosome 22q11. See also lissencephaly (e.g., LIS1, 607432), which shows overlapping features and may result from mutation in tubulin genes. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481300
Concept ID:
C3279670
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles 1B

Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) refers to at least eight genetically defined strabismus syndromes (CFEOM1A, CFEOM1B, CFEOM2, CFEOM3A, CFEOM3B, CFEOM3C, Tukel syndrome, and CFEOM3 with polymicrogyria) characterized by congenital non-progressive ophthalmoplegia (inability to move the eyes) with or without ptosis (droopy eyelids) affecting part or all of the oculomotor nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve III) and its innervated muscles (superior, medial, and inferior recti, inferior oblique, and levator palpabrae superioris) and/or the trochlear nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve IV) and its innervated muscle (the superior oblique). In general, affected individuals have severe limitation of vertical gaze (usually upgaze) and variable limitation of horizontal gaze. Individuals with CFEOM frequently compensate for the ophthalmoplegia by maintaining abnormal head positions at rest and by moving their heads rather than their eyes to track objects. Individuals with CFEOM3A may also have intellectual disability, social disability, Kallmann syndrome, facial weakness, and vocal cord paralysis; and/or may develop a progressive sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Individuals with Tukel syndrome also have postaxial oligodactyly or oligosyndactyly of the hands. Those with CFEOM3 with polymicrogyria also have microcephaly and intellectual disability. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
468526
Concept ID:
CN120300
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Parkinson disease, late-onset

Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
463618
Concept ID:
C3160718
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Polymicrogyria with optic nerve hypoplasia

MedGen UID:
442565
Concept ID:
C2750798
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia

Mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) is an X-linked disorder affecting females and characterized by severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, and variable degrees of pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Affected individuals have very poor psychomotor development, often without independent ambulation or speech, and axial hypotonia with or without hypertonia. Some may have sensorineural hearing loss or eye anomalies. Dysmorphic features include overall poor growth, severe microcephaly (-3.5 to -10 SD), broad nasal bridge and tip, large ears, long philtrum, micrognathia, and hypertelorism (summary by Moog et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
12.

MACROTHROMBOCYTOPENIA, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT, TUBB1-RELATED

MedGen UID:
413969
Concept ID:
C2751259
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Polymicrogyria, asymmetric

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-7 is an autosomal dominant, clinically heterogeneous disorder showing a wide spectrum of abnormalities of cortical brain development. The most severely affected patients are fetuses with microlissencephaly, absence of the cortical plate, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and severely hypoplastic brainstem and cerebellum. Other patients have lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, cortical dysplasia, or neuronal heterotopia. Those with less severe malformations can survive, but usually have some degree of neurologic impairment, such as mental retardation, seizures, and movement abnormalities (summary by Chang et al., 2006; Fallet-Bianco et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
413259
Concept ID:
C2750247
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 3a, with or without extraocular involvement

Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) refers to at least eight genetically defined strabismus syndromes (CFEOM1A, CFEOM1B, CFEOM2, CFEOM3A, CFEOM3B, CFEOM3C, Tukel syndrome, and CFEOM3 with polymicrogyria) characterized by congenital non-progressive ophthalmoplegia (inability to move the eyes) with or without ptosis (droopy eyelids) affecting part or all of the oculomotor nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve III) and its innervated muscles (superior, medial, and inferior recti, inferior oblique, and levator palpabrae superioris) and/or the trochlear nucleus and nerve (cranial nerve IV) and its innervated muscle (the superior oblique). In general, affected individuals have severe limitation of vertical gaze (usually upgaze) and variable limitation of horizontal gaze. Individuals with CFEOM frequently compensate for the ophthalmoplegia by maintaining abnormal head positions at rest and by moving their heads rather than their eyes to track objects. Individuals with CFEOM3A may also have intellectual disability, social disability, Kallmann syndrome, facial weakness, and vocal cord paralysis; and/or may develop a progressive sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Individuals with Tukel syndrome also have postaxial oligodactyly or oligosyndactyly of the hands. Those with CFEOM3 with polymicrogyria also have microcephaly and intellectual disability. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
412638
Concept ID:
C2748801
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Parkinson disease 2

Parkin type of early-onset Parkinson disease is characterized by rigidity, bradykinesia, and resting tremor. Lower-limb dystonia may be a presenting sign. Onset usually occurs between ages 20 and 40 years with an average age of onset in the early to mid-thirties. The disease is slowly progressive and disease duration of more than 50 years has been reported. Clinical signs vary; hyperreflexia is common. Dyskinesia as a result of treatment with levodopa frequently occurs. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
401500
Concept ID:
C1868675
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Anemia, sideroblastic, autosomal dominant

Sideroblastic anemia comprises a heterogeneous group of inherited and acquired disorders characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis. Anemia, if present, may be microcytic or macrocytic. Sometimes a dimorphic picture is observed in which 2 populations of erythrocytes can be detected in peripheral blood smears. The presence of ringed sideroblasts (erythroblasts containing pathologic mitochondrial iron deposits) in bone marrow is pathognomonic for sideroblastic anemia (van Waveren Hogervorst et al., 1987; Schmitz-Abe et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sideroblastic anemia, see SIDBA1 (300751). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
393117
Concept ID:
C2674249
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major histologic type of malignant primary liver neoplasm. It is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. The major risk factors for HCC are chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, prolonged dietary aflatoxin exposure, alcoholic cirrhosis, and cirrhosis due to other causes. Hepatoblastomas comprise 1 to 2% of all malignant neoplasms of childhood, most often occurring in children under 3 years of age. Hepatoblastomas are thought to be derived from undifferentiated hepatocytes (Taniguchi et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
389187
Concept ID:
C2239176
Neoplastic Process
18.

Parkinson disease 4

Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
381361
Concept ID:
C1854182
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Lissencephaly 3

MedGen UID:
369910
Concept ID:
C1969029
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Parkinson disease 1

Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
357008
Concept ID:
C1868595
Disease or Syndrome
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