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Results: 1 to 20 of 47

1.

Immunodeficiency 30

IMD30 results from autosomal recessive IL12RB1 deficiency and is the most common form of susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. Activated T and natural killer lymphocytes from IMD30 patients do not express IL12RB1 on their surface or, more rarely, express nonfunctional IL12RB1 on their surface. IMD30 patients therefore lack responses to IL12 (see 161560) and IL23 (see 605580). The clinical presentation of IL12RB1-deficient patients is similar to that of IL12B-deficient patients (see IMD29, 614890). Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) disease and salmonellosis are the most frequent infections. Salmonellosis is present in about half of IL12RB1-deficient patients, and significant numbers of patients present with isolated salmonellosis. Severe tuberculosis has been reported in several unrelated patients, and other infections have been reported in single patients. IMD30 has low penetrance, and patients have relatively mild disease and good prognosis (review by Al-Muhsen and Casanova, 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
807419
Concept ID:
CN219204
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Immunodeficiency 29

IMD29 results from autosomal recessive IL12B deficiency and is characterized by undetectable IL12B secretion from leukocytes. IL12B-deficient patients generally present with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) disease after vaccination in childhood, and at least half also have Salmonella infection. Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and environmental mycobacteria have also been reported in IL12B-deficient patients. The phenotype is relatively mild, and patients have a good prognosis (review by Al-Muhsen and Casanova, 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
807417
Concept ID:
CN219203
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Immunodeficiency 31a

IMD31A results from autosomal dominant (AD) STAT1 deficiency. STAT1 is crucial for cellular responses to IFNA (147660)/IFNB (147640) (type I interferon) and IFNG (147570) (type III interferon). AD STAT1 deficiency selectively affects the IFNG pathway, but not the IFNA/IFNB pathway. Unlike autosomal recessive (AR) STAT1 deficiency (IMD31B; 613796), which affects both the IFNA/IFNB and IFNG pathways, AD STAT1 deficiency confers a predisposition to mycobacterial infections only, with no increased susceptibility to viral infections. Pathogens reported in IMD31A patients include bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Mycobacterium avium complex, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. IMD31A has low penetrance and a mild clinical phenotype with good prognosis for recovery (review by Al-Muhsen and Casanova, 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
807414
Concept ID:
CN219205
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Autoimmune disease, multisystem, infantile-onset

Infantile-onset multisystem autoimmune disease is characterized by early childhood onset of a spectrum of autoimmune disorders affecting multiple organs. The most common manifestations are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and autoimmune enteropathy, or celiac disease. Other features include short stature and nonspecific dermatitis. More variable features include hypothyroidism, autoimmune arthritis, and delayed puberty (summary by Flanagan et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
799886
Concept ID:
CN207828
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Immunodeficiency 22

MedGen UID:
776947
Concept ID:
CN186319
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Common variable immunodeficiency 10

Common variable immunodeficiency-10 is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency characterized by childhood-onset of recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased numbers of memory and marginal zone B cells. Some patients may develop autoimmune features and have circulating autoantibodies. An unusual feature is central adrenal insufficiency (summary by Chen et al., 2013). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
776759
Concept ID:
CN185293
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Immunodeficiency 19

Immunodeficiency-19 (IMD19) is an autosomal recessive form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) characterized by onset in early infancy of recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Patients usually have chronic diarrhea, recurrent respiratory infections, and failure to thrive. Immunologic work-up shows a T cell-negative, B cell-positive, natural killer (NK) cell-positive phenotype. The disorder is lethal in early childhood without bone marrow transplantation (summary by Yu et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
776542
Concept ID:
CN184331
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Immunodeficiency 18

Immunodeficiency-18 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset in infancy or early childhood of recurrent infections. The severity is variable, encompassing both a mild immunodeficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), resulting in early death without bone marrow transplantation in some patients. Immunologic work-up of the IMD18 SCID patients shows a T cell-negative, B cell-positive, natural killer (NK) cell-positive phenotype, whereas T-cell development is not impaired in the mild form of IMD18 (summary by de Saint Basile et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
776541
Concept ID:
CN184330
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Immunodeficiency 17

Immunodeficiency-17 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by highly variable clinical severity. Some patients have onset of severe recurrent infections in early infancy that may be lethal, whereas others may be only mildly affected or essentially asymptomatic into young adulthood. More severely affected patients may have evidence of autoimmune disease or enteropathy. The immunologic pattern is similar among patients, showing partial T-cell lymphopenia, particularly of cytotoxic CD8 (see 186910)-positive cells, decreased amounts of the CD3 complex, and impaired proliferative responses to T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent stimuli. B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and immunoglobulins are usually normal. Although thymic output of functional naive T cells early in life is decreased, polyclonal expansion of functional memory T cells is substantial. The phenotype in some patients is reminiscent of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) (summary by Timon et al. (1993) and Recio et al. (2007)). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
776532
Concept ID:
CN184222
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Thrombocythemia 3

Thrombocythemia-3 is an autosomal dominant hematologic disorder characterized by increased platelet production resulting in increased numbers of circulating platelets. Thrombocythemia can be associated with thrombotic episodes, such as cerebrovascular events or myocardial infarction (summary by Mead et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of thrombocythemia, see THCYT1 (187950). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482755
Concept ID:
C3281125
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Immunodeficiency 31C

Immunodeficiency-31C is an autosomal dominant disorder of immunologic dysregulation with highly variable manifestations. Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Other highly variable features include recurrent bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycoplasmal infections, disseminated dimorphic fungal infections, enteropathy with villous atrophy, and autoimmune disorders, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. A subset of patients show apparently nonimmunologic features, including osteopenia, delayed puberty, and intracranial aneurysms. Laboratory studies show increased activation of gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570)-mediated inflammation (summary by Uzel et al., 2013 and Sampaio et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481620
Concept ID:
C3279990
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Okt4 epitope deficiency

MedGen UID:
462729
Concept ID:
C3151379
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Mycobacterial and viral infections, susceptibility to, autosomal recessive

MedGen UID:
462438
Concept ID:
C3151088
Finding
14.

Multiple sclerosis susceptibility

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology. The peak onset is between age 20 and 40 years; it may develop in children and has also been identified in persons over age 60 years. Women are affected approximately twice as often as men. The most common clinical signs and symptoms, occurring in isolation or in combination, include sensory disturbance of the limbs (~30%), partial or complete visual loss (~15%), acute and subacute motor dysfunction of the limbs (~13%), diplopia (7%), and gait dysfunction (5%). The course may be relapsing-remitting or progressive, severe or mild, and may involve the entire neuroaxis in a widespread fashion or predominantly affect the spinal cord and optic nerves. The four clinical phenotypes of MS are: relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) (initially occurring in more than 80% of individuals with MS); primary progressive MS (PP-MS) (occurring in 10%-20% of individuals with MS); progressive relapsing MS (PR-MS) (a rare form); and secondary progressive MS (SP-MS), to which approximately half of all persons diagnosed with RR-MS convert within a decade after the initial diagnosis. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
429785
Concept ID:
CN031763
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Sarcoidosis 1

Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder associated with an accumulation of CD4+ T cells and a Th1 immune response. In childhood, 2 distinct types of sarcoidosis have been described (Shetty and Gedalia, 1998). Usually the disease is detected in older children by chest radiography, and the clinical manifestations are characterized by a classic triad of lung, lymph node, and eye involvement, similar to those in adults. In contrast, early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS; 609464), which usually appears in those younger than 4 years of age, is rare and has a distinct triad of skin, joint, and eye disorders, without apparent pulmonary involvement. Compared with an asymptomatic and sometimes naturally disappearing course of the disease in older children, EOS is progressive and in many cases causes severe complications, such as blindness, joint destruction, and visceral involvement. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
426944
Concept ID:
CN034668
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency

MedGen UID:
409751
Concept ID:
C1969086
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 10

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, specialized cells in the pancreas called beta cells stop producing insulin. Insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Lack of insulin results in the inability to use glucose for energy or to control the amount of sugar in the blood. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age; however, it usually develops by early adulthood, most often starting in adolescence. The first signs and symptoms of the disorder are caused by high blood sugar and may include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet, and weight loss. These symptoms may recur during the course of the disorder if blood sugar is not well controlled by insulin replacement therapy. Improper control can also cause blood sugar levels to become too low (hypoglycemia). This may occur when the body's needs change, such as during exercise or if eating is delayed. Hypoglycemia can cause headache, dizziness, hunger, shaking, sweating, weakness, and agitation. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to a life-threatening complication called diabetic ketoacidosis. Without insulin, cells cannot take in glucose. A lack of glucose in cells prompts the liver to try to compensate by releasing more glucose into the blood, and blood sugar can become extremely high. The cells, unable to use the glucose in the blood for energy, respond by using fats instead. Breaking down fats to obtain energy produces waste products called ketones, which can build up to toxic levels in people with type 1 diabetes, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis. Affected individuals may begin breathing rapidly; develop a fruity odor in the breath; and experience nausea, vomiting, facial flushing, stomach pain, and dryness of the mouth (xerostomia). In severe cases, diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma and death. Over many years, the chronic high blood sugar associated with diabetes may cause damage to blood vessels and nerves, leading to complications affecting many organs and tissues. The retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, can be damaged (diabetic retinopathy), leading to vision loss and eventual blindness. Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) may also occur and can lead to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Pain, tingling, and loss of normal sensation (diabetic neuropathy) often occur, especially in the feet. Impaired circulation and absence of the normal sensations that prompt reaction to injury can result in permanent damage to the feet; in severe cases, the damage can lead to amputation. People with type 1 diabetes are also at increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, and problems with urinary and sexual function.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
400903
Concept ID:
C1866040
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Systemic lupus erythematosus 11

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease that causes inflammation in connective tissues, such as cartilage and the lining of blood vessels, which provide strength and flexibility to structures throughout the body. The signs and symptoms of SLE vary among affected individuals, and can involve many organs and systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system, and blood-forming (hematopoietic) system. SLE is one of a large group of conditions called autoimmune disorders that occur when the immune system attacks the body's own tissues and organs. SLE may first appear as extreme tiredness (fatigue), a vague feeling of discomfort or illness (malaise), fever, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Most affected individuals also have joint pain, typically affecting the same joints on both sides of the body, and muscle pain and weakness. Skin problems are common in SLE. A characteristic feature is a flat red rash across the cheeks and bridge of the nose, called a "butterfly rash" because of its shape. The rash, which generally does not hurt or itch, often appears or becomes more pronounced when exposed to sunlight. Other skin problems that may occur in SLE include calcium deposits under the skin (calcinosis), damaged blood vessels (vasculitis) in the skin, and tiny red spots called petechiae. Petechiae are caused by a shortage of blood clotting cells called platelets that leads to bleeding under the skin. Affected individuals may also have hair loss (alopecia) and open sores (ulcerations) in the moist lining (mucosae) of the mouth, nose, or, less commonly, the genitals. About a third of people with SLE develop kidney disease (nephritis). Heart problems may also occur in SLE, including inflammation of the sac-like membrane around the heart (pericarditis) and abnormalities of the heart valves, which control blood flow in the heart. Heart disease caused by fatty buildup in the blood vessels (atherosclerosis), which is very common in the general population, is even more common in people with SLE. The inflammation characteristic of SLE can also damage the nervous system, and may result in abnormal sensation and weakness in the limbs (peripheral neuropathy); seizures; stroke; and difficulty processing, learning, and remembering information (cognitive impairment). Anxiety and depression are also common in SLE. People with SLE have episodes in which the condition gets worse (exacerbations) and other times when it gets better (remissions). Overall, SLE gradually gets worse over time, and damage to the major organs of the body can be life-threatening.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
393656
Concept ID:
C2677096
Finding
19.

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 22

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, specialized cells in the pancreas called beta cells stop producing insulin. Insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Lack of insulin results in the inability to use glucose for energy or to control the amount of sugar in the blood. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age; however, it usually develops by early adulthood, most often starting in adolescence. The first signs and symptoms of the disorder are caused by high blood sugar and may include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet, and weight loss. These symptoms may recur during the course of the disorder if blood sugar is not well controlled by insulin replacement therapy. Improper control can also cause blood sugar levels to become too low (hypoglycemia). This may occur when the body's needs change, such as during exercise or if eating is delayed. Hypoglycemia can cause headache, dizziness, hunger, shaking, sweating, weakness, and agitation. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to a life-threatening complication called diabetic ketoacidosis. Without insulin, cells cannot take in glucose. A lack of glucose in cells prompts the liver to try to compensate by releasing more glucose into the blood, and blood sugar can become extremely high. The cells, unable to use the glucose in the blood for energy, respond by using fats instead. Breaking down fats to obtain energy produces waste products called ketones, which can build up to toxic levels in people with type 1 diabetes, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis. Affected individuals may begin breathing rapidly; develop a fruity odor in the breath; and experience nausea, vomiting, facial flushing, stomach pain, and dryness of the mouth (xerostomia). In severe cases, diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma and death. Over many years, the chronic high blood sugar associated with diabetes may cause damage to blood vessels and nerves, leading to complications affecting many organs and tissues. The retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, can be damaged (diabetic retinopathy), leading to vision loss and eventual blindness. Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) may also occur and can lead to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Pain, tingling, and loss of normal sensation (diabetic neuropathy) often occur, especially in the feet. Impaired circulation and absence of the normal sensations that prompt reaction to injury can result in permanent damage to the feet; in severe cases, the damage can lead to amputation. People with type 1 diabetes are also at increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, and problems with urinary and sexual function.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
390900
Concept ID:
C2675864
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Interleukin 2 receptor, alpha, deficiency of

MedGen UID:
377894
Concept ID:
C1853392
Disease or Syndrome

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