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Graves disease 2(GRD2)

MedGen UID:
350301
Concept ID:
C1863923
Finding
Synonyms: GRAVES DISEASE, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 2; GRD2
 
OMIM®: 603388

Definition

Graves disease is a condition that affects the function of the thyroid, which is a butterfly-shaped gland in the lower neck. The thyroid makes hormones that help regulate a wide variety of critical body functions. For example, thyroid hormones influence growth and development, body temperature, heart rate, menstrual cycles, and weight. In people with Graves disease, the thyroid is overactive and makes more hormones than the body needs. The condition usually appears in mid-adulthood, although it may occur at any age. Excess thyroid hormones can cause a variety of signs and symptoms. These include nervousness or anxiety, extreme tiredness (fatigue), a rapid and irregular heartbeat, hand tremors, frequent bowel movements or diarrhea, increased sweating and difficulty tolerating hot conditions, trouble sleeping, and weight loss in spite of an increased appetite. Affected women may have menstrual irregularities, such as an unusually light menstrual flow and infrequent periods. Some people with Graves disease develop an enlargement of the thyroid called a goiter. Depending on its size, the enlarged thyroid can cause the neck to look swollen and may interfere with breathing and swallowing. Between 25 and 50 percent of people with Graves disease have eye abnormalities, which are known as Graves ophthalmopathy. These eye problems can include swelling and inflammation, redness, dryness, puffy eyelids, and a gritty sensation like having sand or dirt in the eyes. Some people develop bulging of the eyes caused by inflammation of tissues behind the eyeball and "pulling back" (retraction) of the eyelids. Rarely, affected individuals have more serious eye problems, such as pain, double vision, and pinching (compression) of the optic nerve connecting the eye and the brain, which can cause vision loss. A small percentage of people with Graves disease develop a skin abnormality called pretibial myxedema or Graves dermopathy. This abnormality causes the skin on the front of the lower legs and the tops of the feet to become thick, lumpy, and red. It is not usually painful.
[from GHR]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Smyczńyska J, Cyniak-Magierska A, Stasiak M, Karbownik-Lewińska M, Lewiński A
Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2014;35(5):335-41. PMID: 25275265
Jevalikar G, Solis J, Zacharin M
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2014 Nov;27(11-12):1131-6. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2013-0342. PMID: 24945422
Gastaldi R, Poggi E, Mussa A, Weber G, Vigone MC, Salerno M, Delvecchio M, Peroni E, Pistorio A, Corrias A
J Pediatr 2014 May;164(5):1189-1194.e1. Epub 2014 Feb 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.047. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24518168
Choi JY, Lee KE, Koo do H, Kim KH, Kim Ey, Bae DS, Jung SE, Youn YK
World J Surg 2014 Mar;38(3):639-44. doi: 10.1007/s00268-013-2322-0. PMID: 24178184
Tamatea JA, Tu'akoi K, Conaglen JV, Elston MS, Meyer-Rochow GY
ANZ J Surg 2014 Apr;84(4):231-4. Epub 2012 Sep 17 doi: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2012.06233.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22985335

Diagnosis

Jevalikar G, Solis J, Zacharin M
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2014 Nov;27(11-12):1131-6. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2013-0342. PMID: 24945422
Yunusa GH, Kotze T, Brink A
Ann Afr Med 2014 Apr-Jun;13(2):91-4. doi: 10.4103/1596-3519.129891. PMID: 24705115
Gastaldi R, Poggi E, Mussa A, Weber G, Vigone MC, Salerno M, Delvecchio M, Peroni E, Pistorio A, Corrias A
J Pediatr 2014 May;164(5):1189-1194.e1. Epub 2014 Feb 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.047. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24518168
Torimoto K, Okada Y, Arao T, Mori H, Yamamoto S, Narisawa M, Kurozumi A, Tanaka Y
Endocr J 2014;61(4):321-8. Epub 2014 Jan 11 [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24420389
Lohiya S, Lohiya V, Stahl EJ
Am J Med Sci 2013 Jul;346(1):73-5. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318288a6fa. PMID: 23514670

Therapy

Smyczńyska J, Cyniak-Magierska A, Stasiak M, Karbownik-Lewińska M, Lewiński A
Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2014;35(5):335-41. PMID: 25275265
Jevalikar G, Solis J, Zacharin M
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2014 Nov;27(11-12):1131-6. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2013-0342. PMID: 24945422
Gastaldi R, Poggi E, Mussa A, Weber G, Vigone MC, Salerno M, Delvecchio M, Peroni E, Pistorio A, Corrias A
J Pediatr 2014 May;164(5):1189-1194.e1. Epub 2014 Feb 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.047. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24518168
Torimoto K, Okada Y, Arao T, Mori H, Yamamoto S, Narisawa M, Kurozumi A, Tanaka Y
Endocr J 2014;61(4):321-8. Epub 2014 Jan 11 [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24420389
Wang Y, Wu LP, Fu J, Lv HJ, Guan XY, Xu L, Chen P, Gao CQ, Hou P, Ji MJ, Shi BY
J Endocrinol 2013 Dec;219(3):183-93. Epub 2013 Oct 28 doi: 10.1530/JOE-13-0279. PMID: 24029729

Prognosis

Smyczńyska J, Cyniak-Magierska A, Stasiak M, Karbownik-Lewińska M, Lewiński A
Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2014;35(5):335-41. PMID: 25275265
Jevalikar G, Solis J, Zacharin M
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2014 Nov;27(11-12):1131-6. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2013-0342. PMID: 24945422
Léger J, Kaguelidou F, Alberti C, Carel JC
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 Mar;28(2):233-43. Epub 2013 Sep 6 doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2013.08.008. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24629864
Gastaldi R, Poggi E, Mussa A, Weber G, Vigone MC, Salerno M, Delvecchio M, Peroni E, Pistorio A, Corrias A
J Pediatr 2014 May;164(5):1189-1194.e1. Epub 2014 Feb 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.047. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24518168
Chen DY, Schneider PF, Zhang XS, Luo XY, He ZM, Chen TH
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2014 Jan;122(1):1-6. Epub 2013 Nov 7 doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1358484. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24203649

Clinical prediction guides

Jevalikar G, Solis J, Zacharin M
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2014 Nov;27(11-12):1131-6. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2013-0342. PMID: 24945422
Gastaldi R, Poggi E, Mussa A, Weber G, Vigone MC, Salerno M, Delvecchio M, Peroni E, Pistorio A, Corrias A
J Pediatr 2014 May;164(5):1189-1194.e1. Epub 2014 Feb 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.12.047. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24518168
Torimoto K, Okada Y, Arao T, Mori H, Yamamoto S, Narisawa M, Kurozumi A, Tanaka Y
Endocr J 2014;61(4):321-8. Epub 2014 Jan 11 [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24420389
Choi JY, Lee KE, Koo do H, Kim KH, Kim Ey, Bae DS, Jung SE, Youn YK
World J Surg 2014 Mar;38(3):639-44. doi: 10.1007/s00268-013-2322-0. PMID: 24178184
Wang Y, Wu LP, Fu J, Lv HJ, Guan XY, Xu L, Chen P, Gao CQ, Hou P, Ji MJ, Shi BY
J Endocrinol 2013 Dec;219(3):183-93. Epub 2013 Oct 28 doi: 10.1530/JOE-13-0279. PMID: 24029729

Recent systematic reviews

Feroci F, Rettori M, Borrelli A, Coppola A, Castagnoli A, Perigli G, Cianchi F, Scatizzi M
Surgery 2014 Mar;155(3):529-40. Epub 2013 Oct 16 doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2013.10.017. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24230962
Zhao SX, Xue LQ, Liu W, Gu ZH, Pan CM, Yang SY, Zhan M, Wang HN, Liang J, Gao GQ, Zhang XM, Yuan GY, Li CG, Du WH, Liu BL, Liu LB, Chen G, Su Q, Peng YD, Zhao JJ, Ning G, Huang W, Liang L, Qi L, Chen SJ, Chen Z, Chen JL, Song HD; China Consortium for the Genetics of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease
Hum Mol Genet 2013 Aug 15;22(16):3347-62. Epub 2013 Apr 23 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt183. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23612905
Li Y, Yao Y, Yang M, Shi L, Li X, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Xiao C
Int J Med Sci 2013;10(2):164-70. Epub 2013 Jan 3 doi: 10.7150/ijms.5158. PMID: 23329888Free PMC Article
Genovese BM, Noureldine SI, Gleeson EM, Tufano RP, Kandil E
Ann Surg Oncol 2013 Feb;20(2):660-7. Epub 2012 Sep 7 doi: 10.1245/s10434-012-2606-x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22956065
Tozzoli R, Bagnasco M, Giavarina D, Bizzaro N
Autoimmun Rev 2012 Dec;12(2):107-13. Epub 2012 Jul 7 doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2012.07.003. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22776786

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