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Prostate cancer

MedGen UID:
506673
Concept ID:
CN167851
Finding
Synonyms: Prostatic cancer
 
HPO: HP:0012125

Definition

A cancer of the prostate. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Malignant tumor of prostate
MedGen UID:
138169
Concept ID:
C0376358
Neoplastic Process
The prostate is the gland below a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare in men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family history, and being African-American. Symptoms of prostate cancer may include. -Problems passing urine, such as pain, difficulty starting or stopping the stream, or dribbling. -Low back pain. -Pain with ejaculation. To diagnose prostate cancer, you doctor may do a digital rectal exam to feel the prostate for lumps or anything unusual. You may also get a blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). These tests are also used in prostate cancer screening, which looks for cancer before you have symptoms. If your results are abnormal, you may need more tests, such as an ultrasound, MRI, or biopsy. Treatment often depends on the stage of the cancer. How fast the cancer grows and how different it is from surrounding tissue helps determine the stage. Men with prostate cancer have many treatment options. The treatment that's best for one man may not be best for another. The options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. You may have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
322656
Concept ID:
C1835398
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with the development of the following classic tumors: soft tissue sarcoma, osteosarcoma, pre-menopausal breast cancer, brain tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), and leukemias. In addition, a variety of other neoplasms may occur. LFS-related cancers often occur in childhood or young adulthood and survivors have an increased risk for multiple primary cancers. Age-specific cancer risks have been calculated.
Prostate cancer, hereditary, X-linked 1
MedGen UID:
339479
Concept ID:
C1846279
Neoplastic Process
Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal and multiply without control or order to form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm. Early prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, and most affected men exhibit no noticeable symptoms. Men are often diagnosed as the result of health screenings, such as a blood test for a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) or a medical procedure called a digital rectal exam. As the tumor grows larger, signs and symptoms can include difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine, a feeling of not being able to empty the bladder completely, blood in the urine or semen, or pain with ejaculation. However, these changes can also occur with many other genitourinary conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that a man has prostate cancer. The severity and outcome of prostate cancer varies widely. Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly that they may never cause health problems during their lifetime, even without treatment. In other men, however, the cancer is much more aggressive; in these cases, prostate cancer can be life-threatening. Some cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. The signs and symptoms of metastatic cancer depend on where the disease has spread. If prostate cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver, or brain. Bone metastases of prostate cancer most often cause pain in the lower back, pelvis, or hips. A small percentage of all prostate cancers cluster in families. These hereditary cancers are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary prostate cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases.
Prostate cancer/brain cancer susceptibility
MedGen UID:
400334
Concept ID:
C1863600
Finding
Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal and multiply without control or order to form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm. Early prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, and most affected men exhibit no noticeable symptoms. Men are often diagnosed as the result of health screenings, such as a blood test for a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) or a medical procedure called a digital rectal exam. As the tumor grows larger, signs and symptoms can include difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine, a feeling of not being able to empty the bladder completely, blood in the urine or semen, or pain with ejaculation. However, these changes can also occur with many other genitourinary conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that a man has prostate cancer. The severity and outcome of prostate cancer varies widely. Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly that they may never cause health problems during their lifetime, even without treatment. In other men, however, the cancer is much more aggressive; in these cases, prostate cancer can be life-threatening. Some cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. The signs and symptoms of metastatic cancer depend on where the disease has spread. If prostate cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver, or brain. Bone metastases of prostate cancer most often cause pain in the lower back, pelvis, or hips. A small percentage of all prostate cancers cluster in families. These hereditary cancers are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary prostate cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases.
Prostate cancer, hereditary, 1
MedGen UID:
419810
Concept ID:
C2931456
Neoplastic Process
Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal and multiply without control or order to form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm. Early prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, and most affected men exhibit no noticeable symptoms. Men are often diagnosed as the result of health screenings, such as a blood test for a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) or a medical procedure called a digital rectal exam. As the tumor grows larger, signs and symptoms can include difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine, a feeling of not being able to empty the bladder completely, blood in the urine or semen, or pain with ejaculation. However, these changes can also occur with many other genitourinary conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that a man has prostate cancer. The severity and outcome of prostate cancer varies widely. Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly that they may never cause health problems during their lifetime, even without treatment. In other men, however, the cancer is much more aggressive; in these cases, prostate cancer can be life-threatening. Some cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. The signs and symptoms of metastatic cancer depend on where the disease has spread. If prostate cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver, or brain. Bone metastases of prostate cancer most often cause pain in the lower back, pelvis, or hips. A small percentage of all prostate cancers cluster in families. These hereditary cancers are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary prostate cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Graff RE, Pettersson A, Lis RT, DuPre N, Jordahl KM, Nuttall E, Rider JR, Fiorentino M, Sesso HD, Kenfield SA, Loda M, Giovannucci EL, Rosner B, Nguyen PL, Sweeney CJ, Mucci LA; Transdisciplinary Prostate Cancer Partnership ToPCaP
Prostate 2015 Jun 15;75(9):897-906. Epub 2015 Mar 1 doi: 10.1002/pros.22973. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25728532Free PMC Article
Cook MB, Rosenberg PS, McCarty FA, Wu M, King J, Eheman C, Anderson WF
Prostate 2015 May;75(7):758-63. Epub 2015 Jan 25 doi: 10.1002/pros.22958. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25619191Free PMC Article
Cao Y, Nimptsch K, Shui IM, Platz EA, Wu K, Pollak MN, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL
Int J Cancer 2015 May 15;136(10):2418-26. Epub 2014 Nov 10 doi: 10.1002/ijc.29295. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25348852Free PMC Article
Møller H, Roswall N, Van Hemelrijck M, Larsen SB, Cuzick J, Holmberg L, Overvad K, Tjønneland A
Int J Cancer 2015 Apr 15;136(8):1940-7. Epub 2014 Oct 9 doi: 10.1002/ijc.29238. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25264293
Sourbeer KN, Howard LE, Andriole GL, Moreira DM, Castro-Santamaria R, Freedland SJ, Vidal AC
BJU Int 2015 May;115(5):736-43. Epub 2014 Oct 20 doi: 10.1111/bju.12843. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24931061

Diagnosis

Graff RE, Pettersson A, Lis RT, DuPre N, Jordahl KM, Nuttall E, Rider JR, Fiorentino M, Sesso HD, Kenfield SA, Loda M, Giovannucci EL, Rosner B, Nguyen PL, Sweeney CJ, Mucci LA; Transdisciplinary Prostate Cancer Partnership ToPCaP
Prostate 2015 Jun 15;75(9):897-906. Epub 2015 Mar 1 doi: 10.1002/pros.22973. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25728532Free PMC Article
Russell PJ, Russell P, Rudduck C, Tse BW, Williams ED, Raghavan D
Prostate 2015 May;75(6):628-36. Epub 2015 Jan 5 doi: 10.1002/pros.22946. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25560784Free PMC Article
Cao Y, Nimptsch K, Shui IM, Platz EA, Wu K, Pollak MN, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL
Int J Cancer 2015 May 15;136(10):2418-26. Epub 2014 Nov 10 doi: 10.1002/ijc.29295. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25348852Free PMC Article
Møller H, Roswall N, Van Hemelrijck M, Larsen SB, Cuzick J, Holmberg L, Overvad K, Tjønneland A
Int J Cancer 2015 Apr 15;136(8):1940-7. Epub 2014 Oct 9 doi: 10.1002/ijc.29238. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25264293
Sourbeer KN, Howard LE, Andriole GL, Moreira DM, Castro-Santamaria R, Freedland SJ, Vidal AC
BJU Int 2015 May;115(5):736-43. Epub 2014 Oct 20 doi: 10.1111/bju.12843. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24931061

Therapy

Liu Y, Liu X, Guo Y, Liang Z, Tian Y, Lu L, Zhao X, Sun Y, Zhao X, Zhang H, Dong Y
Prostate 2015 Jun 15;75(9):1001-8. Epub 2015 Mar 8 doi: 10.1002/pros.22987. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25754033Free PMC Article
Graff RE, Pettersson A, Lis RT, DuPre N, Jordahl KM, Nuttall E, Rider JR, Fiorentino M, Sesso HD, Kenfield SA, Loda M, Giovannucci EL, Rosner B, Nguyen PL, Sweeney CJ, Mucci LA; Transdisciplinary Prostate Cancer Partnership ToPCaP
Prostate 2015 Jun 15;75(9):897-906. Epub 2015 Mar 1 doi: 10.1002/pros.22973. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25728532Free PMC Article
Chen R, Zhao Y, Huang Y, Yang Q, Zeng X, Jiang W, Liu J, Thrasher JB, Forrest ML, Li B
Prostate 2015 May;75(6):593-602. Epub 2015 Jan 25 doi: 10.1002/pros.22941. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25620467Free PMC Article
Miyahira AK, Kissick HT, Bishop JL, Takeda DY, Barbieri CE, Simons JW, Pienta KJ, Soule HR
Prostate 2015 Mar 1;75(4):337-47. Epub 2014 Oct 30 doi: 10.1002/pros.22920. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25358693
Sourbeer KN, Howard LE, Andriole GL, Moreira DM, Castro-Santamaria R, Freedland SJ, Vidal AC
BJU Int 2015 May;115(5):736-43. Epub 2014 Oct 20 doi: 10.1111/bju.12843. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24931061

Prognosis

Graff RE, Pettersson A, Lis RT, DuPre N, Jordahl KM, Nuttall E, Rider JR, Fiorentino M, Sesso HD, Kenfield SA, Loda M, Giovannucci EL, Rosner B, Nguyen PL, Sweeney CJ, Mucci LA; Transdisciplinary Prostate Cancer Partnership ToPCaP
Prostate 2015 Jun 15;75(9):897-906. Epub 2015 Mar 1 doi: 10.1002/pros.22973. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25728532Free PMC Article
Resnick MJ, Lacchetti C, Bergman J, Hauke RJ, Hoffman KE, Kungel TM, Morgans AK, Penson DF
J Clin Oncol 2015 Mar 20;33(9):1078-85. Epub 2015 Feb 9 doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.60.2557. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25667275
Cook MB, Rosenberg PS, McCarty FA, Wu M, King J, Eheman C, Anderson WF
Prostate 2015 May;75(7):758-63. Epub 2015 Jan 25 doi: 10.1002/pros.22958. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25619191Free PMC Article
Gordon CA, Gulzar ZG, Brooks JD
Prostate 2015 Apr 1;75(5):517-26. Epub 2015 Jan 13 doi: 10.1002/pros.22938. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25585568
Møller H, Roswall N, Van Hemelrijck M, Larsen SB, Cuzick J, Holmberg L, Overvad K, Tjønneland A
Int J Cancer 2015 Apr 15;136(8):1940-7. Epub 2014 Oct 9 doi: 10.1002/ijc.29238. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25264293

Clinical prediction guides

Segal CV, Koufaris C, Powell C, Gooderham NJ
Toxicology 2015 Jul 3;333:45-52. Epub 2015 Apr 3 doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2015.04.002. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25846647
Ide H, Yamagishi S, Lu Y, Sakamaki K, Nakajima A, Horiuchi A, Kitamura K, Hisasue S, Muto S, Yamaguchi R, Horie S
Anticancer Res 2015 Mar;35(3):1703-8. PMID: 25750331
Chen R, Zhao Y, Huang Y, Yang Q, Zeng X, Jiang W, Liu J, Thrasher JB, Forrest ML, Li B
Prostate 2015 May;75(6):593-602. Epub 2015 Jan 25 doi: 10.1002/pros.22941. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25620467Free PMC Article
Gordon CA, Gulzar ZG, Brooks JD
Prostate 2015 Apr 1;75(5):517-26. Epub 2015 Jan 13 doi: 10.1002/pros.22938. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25585568
Rais-Bahrami S, Siddiqui MM, Vourganti S, Turkbey B, Rastinehad AR, Stamatakis L, Truong H, Walton-Diaz A, Hoang AN, Nix JW, Merino MJ, Wood BJ, Simon RM, Choyke PL, Pinto PA
BJU Int 2015 Mar;115(3):381-8. Epub 2014 Sep 15 doi: 10.1111/bju.12639. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24447678

Recent systematic reviews

Grill S, Fallah M, Leach RJ, Thompson IM, Hemminki K, Ankerst DP
J Clin Epidemiol 2015 May;68(5):563-73. Epub 2015 Jan 14 doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.01.006. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25684153
Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, Vieira AR, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Vatten LJ, Norat T
Am J Clin Nutr 2015 Jan;101(1):87-117. Epub 2014 Nov 19 doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.067157. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25527754
Cuzick J, Thorat MA, Andriole G, Brawley OW, Brown PH, Culig Z, Eeles RA, Ford LG, Hamdy FC, Holmberg L, Ilic D, Key TJ, La Vecchia C, Lilja H, Marberger M, Meyskens FL, Minasian LM, Parker C, Parnes HL, Perner S, Rittenhouse H, Schalken J, Schmid HP, Schmitz-Dräger BJ, Schröder FH, Stenzl A, Tombal B, Wilt TJ, Wolk A
Lancet Oncol 2014 Oct;15(11):e484-92. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70211-6. PMID: 25281467Free PMC Article
Al Olama AA, Kote-Jarai Z, Berndt SI, Conti DV, Schumacher F, Han Y, Benlloch S, Hazelett DJ, Wang Z, Saunders E, Leongamornlert D, Lindstrom S, Jugurnauth-Little S, Dadaev T, Tymrakiewicz M, Stram DO, Rand K, Wan P, Stram A, Sheng X, Pooler LC, Park K, Xia L, Tyrer J, Kolonel LN, Le Marchand L, Hoover RN, Machiela MJ, Yeager M, Burdette L, Chung CC, Hutchinson A, Yu K, Goh C, Ahmed M, Govindasami K, Guy M, Tammela TL, Auvinen A, Wahlfors T, Schleutker J, Visakorpi T, Leinonen KA, Xu J, Aly M, Donovan J, Travis RC, Key TJ, Siddiq A, Canzian F, Khaw KT, Takahashi A, Kubo M, Pharoah P, Pashayan N, Weischer M, Nordestgaard BG, Nielsen SF, Klarskov P, Røder MA, Iversen P, Thibodeau SN, McDonnell SK, Schaid DJ, Stanford JL, Kolb S, Holt S, Knudsen B, Coll AH, Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Stevens VL, Maier C, Luedeke M, Herkommer K, Rinckleb AE, Strom SS, Pettaway C, Yeboah ED, Tettey Y, Biritwum RB, Adjei AA, Tay E, Truelove A, Niwa S, Chokkalingam AP, Cannon-Albright L, Cybulski C, Wokołorczyk D, Kluźniak W, Park J, Sellers T, Lin HY, Isaacs WB, Partin AW, Brenner H, Dieffenbach AK, Stegmaier C, Chen C, Giovannucci EL, Ma J, Stampfer M, Penney KL, Mucci L, John EM, Ingles SA, Kittles RA, Murphy AB, Pandha H, Michael A, Kierzek AM, Blot W, Signorello LB, Zheng W, Albanes D, Virtamo J, Weinstein S, Nemesure B, Carpten J, Leske C, Wu SY, Hennis A, Kibel AS, Rybicki BA, Neslund-Dudas C, Hsing AW, Chu L, Goodman PJ, Klein EA, Zheng SL, Batra J, Clements J, Spurdle A, Teixeira MR, Paulo P, Maia S, Slavov C, Kaneva R, Mitev V, Witte JS, Casey G, Gillanders EM, Seminara D, Riboli E, Hamdy FC, Coetzee GA, Li Q, Freedman ML, Hunter DJ, Muir K, Gronberg H, Neal DE, Southey M, Giles GG, Severi G; Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3); PRACTICAL (Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer-Associated Alterations in the Genome) Consortium; COGS (Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study) Consortium; GAME-ON/ELLIPSE Consortium, Cook MB, Nakagawa H, Wiklund F, Kraft P, Chanock SJ, Henderson BE, Easton DF, Eeles RA, Haiman CA
Nat Genet 2014 Oct;46(10):1103-9. Epub 2014 Sep 14 doi: 10.1038/ng.3094. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25217961Free PMC Article
Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Barnett M, Brasky TM, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Chajes V, Chavarro JE, Chirlaque MD, English DR, Gibson RA, Giles GG, Goodman GE, Henning SM, Kaaks R, King IB, Kolonel LN, Kristal AR, Neuhouser ML, Park SY, Severi G, Siddiq A, Stampfer MJ, Stattin P, Tangen CM, Tjønneland A, Trichopoulos D, Tumino R, Wilkens LR, Key TJ, Allen NE; Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group
J Natl Cancer Inst 2014 Sep;106(9) Epub 2014 Sep 10 doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju240. PMID: 25210201Free PMC Article

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