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Verrucae

MedGen UID:
452085
Concept ID:
CN117784
Finding
Synonyms: Warts
 
HPO: HP:0200043

Definition

Warts, benign growths on the skin or mucous membranes that cause cosmetic problems as well as pain and discomfort. Warts most often occur on the hands, feet, and genital areas. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews
  • CROGVerrucae

Conditions with this feature

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis
MedGen UID:
41831
Concept ID:
C0014522
Neoplastic Process
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis associated with a high risk of skin cancer (Ramoz et al., 2000). EV results from an abnormal susceptibility to specific related human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and to the oncogenic potential of some of them, mainly HPV5. Infection with EV-associated HPV leads to the early development of disseminated flat wart-like and pityriasis versicolor-like lesions. Patients are unable to reject their lesions, and cutaneous Bowen carcinomas in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinomas develop in about half of them, mainly on sun-exposed areas.
Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
Incontinentia pigmenti syndrome
MedGen UID:
7049
Concept ID:
C0021171
Disease or Syndrome
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a disorder that affects the skin, hair, teeth, nails, eyes, and central nervous system. Characteristic skin lesions evolve through four stages: I. blistering (birth to age ~4 months); II. a wart-like rash (for several months); III. swirling macular hyperpigmentation (age ~6 months into adulthood); and IV. linear hypopigmentation. Alopecia, hypodontia, abnormal tooth shape, and dystrophic nails are observed. Neovascularization of the retina, present in some individuals, predisposes to retinal detachment. Neurologic findings including cognitive delays/intellectual disability are occasionally seen.
Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Diffuse
MedGen UID:
7201
Concept ID:
C0022584
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited disorder characterized by the development of keratotic lesions on the palms and soles. It appears in childhood as redness on the palms and soles which progresses to well demarcated, thickened, yellowish and waxy lesions.
Keratosis, seborrheic
MedGen UID:
5957
Concept ID:
C0022603
Disease or Syndrome
Seborrheic keratoses are common benign epidermal lesion that can develop on any part of the body.
Lipid proteinosis
MedGen UID:
6112
Concept ID:
C0023795
Disease or Syndrome
Lipoid proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe is a rare autosomal recessive disorder typified by generalized thickening of skin, mucosae, and certain viscera. Classic features include beaded eyelid papules and laryngeal infiltration leading to hoarseness. The disorder is clinically heterogeneous, with affected individuals displaying differing degrees of skin scarring and infiltration, variable signs of hoarseness and respiratory distress, and in some cases neurologic abnormalities such as temporal lobe epilepsy. Histologically, there is widespread deposition of hyaline (glycoprotein) material and disruption/reduplication of basement membrane (summary by Hamada et al., 2002 and Hamada et al., 2003).
Intestinal lymphangiectasis
MedGen UID:
9828
Concept ID:
C0024215
Disease or Syndrome
Dilatation of the intestinal lymphatic system usually caused by an obstruction in the intestinal wall. It may be congenital or acquired and is characterized by DIARRHEA; HYPOPROTEINEMIA; peripheral and/or abdominal EDEMA; and PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHIES.
Warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis
MedGen UID:
96875
Concept ID:
C0472817
Disease or Syndrome
Acrokerato-elastoidosis
MedGen UID:
107467
Concept ID:
C0545044
Disease or Syndrome
A developmental disorder characterized by keratotic papules of skin of hands and soles with disorganization of dermal elastic fibers that does not appear to be due to trauma or sunlight
Costello syndrome
MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
Costello syndrome is characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [HCM]), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults.
Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma
MedGen UID:
354561
Concept ID:
C1721006
Disease or Syndrome
Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a common hereditary cutaneous disorder characterized by marked hyperkeratosis on the surface of palms and soles (Hennies et al., 1995). PPK has been classified into diffuse, focal, and punctate forms according to the pattern of hyperkeratosis on the palms and soles (Lucker et al., 1994). Diffuse PPK develops at birth or shortly thereafter and involves the entire palm and sole with a sharp cutoff at an erythematous border; there are no lesions outside the volar skin, and, in particular, no follicular or oral lesions. In contrast, focal PPK is a late-onset form in which focal hyperkeratotic lesions develop in response to mechanical trauma; an important distinguishing feature is the presence of lesions at other body sites, e.g., oral and follicular hyperkeratosis (Stevens et al., 1996). Palmoplantar keratodermas can be further subdivided histologically into epidermolytic and nonepidermolytic PPK (Risk et al., 1994). Genetic Heterogeneity of Palmoplantar Keratoderma Nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (NEPPK; 600962) is caused by mutation in the KRT1 gene. A focal form of NEPPK (FNEPPK; 613000) is caused by mutation in the KRT16 gene (148067). The diffuse Bothnian form of NEPPK (PPKB; 600231) is caused by mutation in the AQP5 gene (600442). The Nagashima type of nonepidermolytic diffuse PPK (PPKN; 615598) is caused by mutation in the SERPINB7 gene (603357). A generalized form of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK; 113800), also designated bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (BCIE), is caused by mutation in the keratin genes KRT1 and KRT10 (148080). For a discussion of punctate PPK, see 148600; for a discussion of striate PPK, see 148700.
Palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermolytic, with knuckle pads
MedGen UID:
326734
Concept ID:
C1840427
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, X-linked
MedGen UID:
337033
Concept ID:
C1844589
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum, variant type
MedGen UID:
376352
Concept ID:
C1848410
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals, and marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age 2 years in most affected individuals); Ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); and Greatly increased risk of cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Hyperimmunoglobulin E recurrent infection syndrome, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
369829
Concept ID:
C1968689
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome (147060) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin abscesses, increased serum IgE, and abnormalities of the connective tissue, skeleton, and dentition (Buckley et al., 1972; Grimbacher et al., 1999). The autosomal recessive form shares hyper-IgE, eosinophilia, and recurrent Staphylococcal infections, but is distinguished from autosomal dominant HIES by the lack of connective tissue and skeletal involvement (Renner et al., 2004). See also TYK2 deficiency (611521), a clinically distinct disease entity that includes characteristic features of both autosomal recessive HIES and mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD; 209950) (Minegishi et al., 2006).
Myopathy, congenital, with excess of muscle spindles
MedGen UID:
369344
Concept ID:
C1968782
Disease or Syndrome
Incontinentia pigmenti, familial male-lethal type
MedGen UID:
443905
Concept ID:
C2930820
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma Vorner type
MedGen UID:
419149
Concept ID:
C2931735
Disease or Syndrome
Keratosis of Greither
MedGen UID:
445412
Concept ID:
C2936837
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency due to ficolin 3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
462576
Concept ID:
C3151226
Disease or Syndrome
Keratosis Palmaris et Plantaris Familiaris
MedGen UID:
483724
Concept ID:
C3489771
Disease or Syndrome
Palmoplantar Keratoderma, Vorner Type
MedGen UID:
483747
Concept ID:
C3489794
Disease or Syndrome
T-CELL IMMUNODEFICIENCY, RECURRENT INFECTIONS, AND AUTOIMMUNITY WITH OR WITHOUT CARDIAC MALFORMATIONS
MedGen UID:
766857
Concept ID:
C3553943
Disease or Syndrome

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gupta M, Bayliss SJ, Berk DR
Pediatr Dermatol 2013 Jan-Feb;30(1):131-4. Epub 2012 Sep 26 doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01798.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23013353
Cockayne S, Curran M, Denby G, Hashmi F, Hewitt C, Hicks K, Jayakody S, Kang'ombe A, McIntosh C, McLarnon N, Stamuli E, Thomas K, Turner G, Torgerson D, Watt I; EVerT team
Health Technol Assess 2011 Sep;15(32):1-170. doi: 10.3310/hta15320. PMID: 21899812
Johnston J, King CM, Shanks S, Khademi S, Nelson J, Yu J, Barbosa P
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2011 Jan-Feb;101(1):35-40. PMID: 21242468
Cockayne ES; EVERT Trial Team
Trials 2010 Feb 8;11:12. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-11-12. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20141630Free PMC Article
Stierman S, Chen S, Nuovo G, Thomas J
J Cutan Pathol 2010 Jan;37(1):75-80. Epub 2009 Jul 13 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0560.2009.01348.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19615037

Diagnosis

Wang S, Krulig E, Hernandez C
Pediatr Dermatol 2013 Sep-Oct;30(5):e78-82. Epub 2013 Jul 22 doi: 10.1111/pde.12179. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23876174
Gupta M, Bayliss SJ, Berk DR
Pediatr Dermatol 2013 Jan-Feb;30(1):131-4. Epub 2012 Sep 26 doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01798.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23013353
Cheng YC, Po HL
Acta Neurol Taiwan 2011 Dec;20(4):262-6. PMID: 22315177
Dolev JC, Maurer T, Springer G, Glesby MJ, Minkoff H, Connell C, Young M, Schowalter K, Cox C, Hessol NA
AIDS 2008 Jun 19;22(10):1213-9. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283021aa3. PMID: 18525267Free PMC Article
Lei YJ, Gao C, An R, Shi Q, Chen JM, Yuan YK, Wang C, Han J, Dong XP
J Virol Methods 2008 Jan;147(1):72-7. Epub 2007 Sep 14 doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2007.08.005. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 17868912

Therapy

Gupta M, Bayliss SJ, Berk DR
Pediatr Dermatol 2013 Jan-Feb;30(1):131-4. Epub 2012 Sep 26 doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01798.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23013353
Cheng YC, Po HL
Acta Neurol Taiwan 2011 Dec;20(4):262-6. PMID: 22315177
Cockayne S, Curran M, Denby G, Hashmi F, Hewitt C, Hicks K, Jayakody S, Kang'ombe A, McIntosh C, McLarnon N, Stamuli E, Thomas K, Turner G, Torgerson D, Watt I; EVerT team
Health Technol Assess 2011 Sep;15(32):1-170. doi: 10.3310/hta15320. PMID: 21899812
Cockayne S, Hewitt C, Hicks K, Jayakody S, Kang'ombe AR, Stamuli E, Turner G, Thomas K, Curran M, Denby G, Hashmi F, McIntosh C, McLarnon N, Torgerson D, Watt I; EVerT Team
BMJ 2011 Jun 7;342:d3271. PMID: 21652750Free PMC Article
Cockayne ES; EVERT Trial Team
Trials 2010 Feb 8;11:12. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-11-12. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20141630Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Gupta M, Bayliss SJ, Berk DR
Pediatr Dermatol 2013 Jan-Feb;30(1):131-4. Epub 2012 Sep 26 doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01798.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23013353
Dolev JC, Maurer T, Springer G, Glesby MJ, Minkoff H, Connell C, Young M, Schowalter K, Cox C, Hessol NA
AIDS 2008 Jun 19;22(10):1213-9. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283021aa3. PMID: 18525267Free PMC Article
Whitaker JM, Gaggero GL, Loveland L, Segura L, Barbosa P
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2001 Feb;91(2):79-84. PMID: 11266482
Young R, Jolley D, Marks R
Arch Dermatol 1998 Dec;134(12):1586-9. PMID: 9875198
Sollitto RJ, Pizzano DM
J Foot Ankle Surg 1996 Mar-Apr;35(2):169-72. PMID: 8722887

Clinical prediction guides

Cockayne ES; EVERT Trial Team
Trials 2010 Feb 8;11:12. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-11-12. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20141630Free PMC Article
Young R, Jolley D, Marks R
Arch Dermatol 1998 Dec;134(12):1586-9. PMID: 9875198
Lawson EE, Edwards HG, Barry BW, Williams AC
J Drug Target 1998;5(5):343-51. doi: 10.3109/10611869808997862. PMID: 9771616
Barbosa P
Clin Podiatr Med Surg 1998 Apr;15(2):317-27. PMID: 9576056
Jacobsen E, McGraw R, McCagh S
Cutis 1997 Apr;59(4):206-8. PMID: 9104544

Recent systematic reviews

Cockayne S, Curran M, Denby G, Hashmi F, Hewitt C, Hicks K, Jayakody S, Kang'ombe A, McIntosh C, McLarnon N, Stamuli E, Thomas K, Turner G, Torgerson D, Watt I; EVerT team
Health Technol Assess 2011 Sep;15(32):1-170. doi: 10.3310/hta15320. PMID: 21899812
Keogh-Brown MR, Fordham RJ, Thomas KS, Bachmann MO, Holland RC, Avery AJ, Armstrong SJ, Chalmers JR, Howe A, Rodgers S, Williams HC, Harvey I
Br J Dermatol 2007 Apr;156(4):687-92. Epub 2007 Feb 27 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.07768.x. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 17326748

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