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Management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM).

Authors

Kyle RA1, Buadi F, Rajkumar SV.
Author information
  • 1Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. kyle.robert@mayo.edu

Journal

Oncology (Williston Park). 2011 Jun;25(7):578-86.

Affiliation

Comment in

Abstract

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is defined as a serum M protein level of less than 3 g/dL, less than 10% clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, and the absence of end-organ damage. The prevalence of MGUS is 3.2% in the white population but is approximately twice that high in the black population. MGUS may progress to multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, or lymphoma. The risk of progression is approximately 1% per year, but the risk continues even after more than 25 years of observation. Risk factors for progression include the size of the serum M protein, the type of serum M protein, the number of plasma cells in the bone marrow, and the serum free light chain ratio. Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) is characterized by the presence of an M protein level of 3 g/dL or higher and/or 10% or more monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow but no evidence of end-organ damage. The overall risk of progression to a malignant condition is 10% per year for the first 5 years, approximately 3% per year for the next 5 years, and 1% to 2% per year for the following 10 years. Patients with both MGUS and SMM must be followed up for their lifetime.

PMID

21888255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID

PMC3923465 Free full text
UBM Medica LLC: Free full text
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