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1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 reverses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting chemokine synthesis and monocyte trafficking.

Pedersen LB, et al. J Neurosci Res. 2007.

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease whose pathogenesis involves genetic and environmental risk factors leading to an aberrant, neuroantigen-specific, CD4+ T cell-mediated autoimmune response. In support of the hypothesis that vitamin D3 may reduce MS risk and severity, we found that vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) inhibited induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an MS model. To investigate how 1,25-(OH)2D3 could carry out anti-inflammatory functions, we administered 1,25-(OH)2D3 or a placebo to mice with EAE, and subsequently analyzed clinical disease, chemokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and recruitment of dye-labeled monocytes. The 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment significantly reduced clinical EAE severity within 3 days. Sharp declines in chemokines, inducible iNOS, and CD11b+ monocyte recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) preceded this clinical disease abatement in the 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated animals. The 1,25-(OH)2D3 did not directly and rapidly inhibit chemokine synthesis in vivo or in vitro. Rather, the 1,25-(OH)2D3 rapidly stimulated activated CD4+ T cell apoptosis in the CNS and spleen. Collectively, these results support a model wherein inflammation stimulates a natural anti-inflammatory feedback loop. The activated inflammatory cells produce 1,25-(OH)2D3, and this hormone subsequently enhances the apoptotic death of inflammatory CD4+ T cells, removing the driving force for continued inflammation. In this way, the sunlight-derived hormone could reduce the risk of chronic CNS inflammation and autoimmune-mediated neurodegenerative disease.

Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID

17600374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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