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A contribution to examination of propidium iodide and annexin V plasma cells indices in multiple myeloma.

Scudla V, et al. Neoplasma. 2003.

Abstract

The aim of this study was a contemporaneous measurement and a mutual comparison of plasma cells proliferative activity and grade of apoptosis in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and various phases of MM i.e. smoldering (SMM), stable/plateau and active (progression/relapse) forms of this disease. The analyzed group of 197 patients consisted of 30 MGUS, 21 SMM, 82 patients examined at the time of MM diagnosis and 64 patients analyzed during various phases of the disease after previous chemotherapy. Plasma cell proliferative activity was measured by means of a propidium iodide index (PC-PI) examined by flow cytometry using a DNA/CD138 double staining technique. For detection of plasma cells entering apoptosis (PC-AI) flow cytometry method with annexin V FITC and MoAb CD138 was used. The individuals with MGUS, SMM and stable/plateau form of MM had overall low levels of PC-PI (M-1.8, 1.7% and 2.1%) and relatively high levels of PC-AI (M-9.1, 10.8 and 9.0%). The correlation between PC-PI and PC-AI was in all the groups mutually highly statistically significant (p=0.000). Analysis of plasma cells proliferative activity (PC-PI) was statistically significant in comparison of MGUS or SMM and versus: patients examined at the time of MM diagnosis (p=0.018 or 0.016); patients evaluated during various phases of MM after previous chemotherapy (p=0.021 or 0.019); stable/plateau MM phase in the cohort of all patients (p=0.017 or 0.040); in the plateau phase after chemotherapy (p=0.008 or 0.024) but insignificant in comparison of MGUS and SMM and with the stable group examined at the time of MM diagnosis. Analysis of the apoptotic process revealed significant differences when comparing PC-AI of SMM but not MGUS group versus all cohort of stable/plateau MM patients (p=0.045); there were also insignificant differences in comparison of MGUS and SMM groupsand versus the stable form of MM measured at the time of MM diagnosis or plateau phase after chemotherapy. There was observed a statistically significant difference in the PC-AI in comparison of SMM group versus group of all patients examined at the time of MM diagnosis (p=0.001) or in various phases of this disease (p=0.015) and the group of MGUS patients compared with patients evaluated at the time of MM diagnosis (p=0.03). Very significant statistical differences of plasma cell proliferative (PC-PI) and apoptotic (PC-AI) activity were found when comparing the levels of both the indices of MGUS, SMM and stable/plateau MM group versus the active (progression/relapse) form of MM marked by a higher level of PC-PI (3.2%, p=0.000) and PC-AI (4.8%, p=0.000) in the whole cohort of MM patients, but also in comparison with both the active forms at the time of MM diagnosis or active forms evaluated during various phases of the disease after chemotherapy. Highly significant inverse relationship between PC-PI versus PC-AI was also revealed in the group of patients in the active (progression/relapse) phase of MM (p=0.000). These results revealed importance of measurement not only of proliferative but also of apoptotic plasma cells indices for a complex evaluation of the cells kinetics of plasma cells compartments in patients with MGUS or MM. This study confirmed the initial hypothesis of a common 'inverse relationship between the proliferative (PC-PI) and the apoptosis activity (PC-AI) in plasma cells compartments in patients with MGUS, smoldering, stable/plateau and active (progression/ relapse) forms of MM'.

PMID

14628090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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