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Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is associated with situs abnormalities, abnormal sperm motility, and abnormal ciliary structure and function that result in retention of mucus and bacteria in the respiratory tract leading to chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease. More than 75% of full-term neonates with PCD have 'neonatal respiratory distress' requiring supplemental oxygen for days to weeks. Chronic airway infection, apparent in early childhood, results in bronchiectasis that is almost uniformly present in adulthood. Nasal congestion and sinus infections, apparent in early childhood, persist through adulthood. Chronic/recurrent ear infection, apparent in most young children, can be associated with transient or later irreversible hearing loss. Situs inversus totalis (mirror-image reversal of all visceral organs with no apparent physiologic consequences) is present in 50% of individuals with PCD; heterotaxy (discordance of right and left patterns of ordinarily asymmetric structures that can be associated with significant malformations) is present in approximately 6%. Approximately 50% of males with PCD are infertile as a result of abnormal sperm motility.

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