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TNF tumor necrosis factor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7124, updated on 26-Aug-2014
Official Symbol
TNFprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
tumor necrosis factorprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:11892
Locus tag
DADB-70P7.1
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000232810; HPRD:01855; MIM:191160; Vega:OTTHUMG00000031194
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
DIF; TNFA; TNFSF2; TNF-alpha
Summary
This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Location:
6p21.3
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 6 NC_000006.12 (31575567..31578336)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (31543344..31546113)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-like 1 Neighboring gene lymphotoxin alpha Neighboring gene lymphotoxin beta (TNF superfamily, member 3) Neighboring gene leukocyte specific transcript 1 Neighboring gene natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 3

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Asthma, susceptibility to
MedGen: C1869116 OMIM: 600807 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs
Migraine
MedGen: C0149931 OMIM: 157300 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs
Susceptibility to malaria
MedGen: C1970028 OMIM: 611162 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association study of atypical psychosis.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn's disease susceptibility loci.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genomewide association study of an AIDS-nonprogression cohort emphasizes the role played by HLA genes (ANRS Genomewide Association Study 02).
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Identification of candidate loci at 6p21 and 21q22 in a genome-wide association study of cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120-treated vaginal epithelial cells show upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, TNF-alpha) expression as compared to untreated control PubMed
env The binding of soluble HIV-1 gp120 to TLR2 or TLR4 results in upregulation of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 production through NF-kappaB activation PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 enhances TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 gene expression in coronary macrovascular endothelial cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 inhibits CpG-A-induced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10 proteins in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs PubMed
env NK cells that respond with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokine production to HIV-1 gp120 peptides have reduced CD16 and NKp46 expression and have increased levels of CD57 PubMed
env Frequent IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha NK cell responses to HIV-1 gp120 are dominant during chronic HIV-1 infection PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 induces human glial cells to release more TNF-alpha and IL-1beta than untreated cells PubMed
env Inhibition of NRF2 by siRNA results in increased NOX2, NFkappaB (p65/p50), TNF-alpha, and MMP-9 proteins in astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 stimulates the release of TNF-alpha from TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells; treatment with TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody and anti-TNF-alpha receptor type II (TNFR-II) antibody, inhibits gp120-induced upregulation of mu opioid receptor PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 inhibits TLR9-mediated upregulation of CD83 and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6, and chemokine IP10 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 triggers apoptosis in primary osteoblasts and osteoblast-derived cell lines (HOBIT) through TNFalpha activation PubMed
env Cytokines induced in vitro by HIV-1 gp120 in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) include interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-10, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta PubMed
env HIV gp120 and TNF-alpha synergistically reduce endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and cause endothelial dysfunction via ICAM-1 PubMed
env Stimulation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with HIV-1 gp120 results in the CCR5-mediated activation of Lyn and the concomitant Lyn-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK-1/2, which leads to production of TNF-alpha PubMed
env Genistein, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppresses HIV-1 gp120-induced TNF-alpha secretion by primary macrophage PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 stimulates human cells to release TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, and this effect can be blocked with soluble CD4 PubMed
env In CD4-positive Jurkat cells, HIV-1 gp120 enhances TNF-induced NF-kappa B activation PubMed
env Treatment of HIV-1-infected monocytes with TNF-alpha increases the sensitivity of the interaction of the HIV-1 antigen gp120 with cytotoxic sera from HIV-1 infected individuals PubMed
env Enhanced TNF-alpha responses are observed when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are costimulated with HIV-1 gp120 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) PubMed
env CD4 downregulation by the treatment of macrophages with HIV-1 gp120 is mediated through the induction of endogenous TNF-alpha PubMed
env B cells from peripheral blood and lymph nodes of HIV-infected individuals secrete significant levels of TNF-alpha in the presence of HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env Apoptosis of CD8+ cells is mediated by the interaction between TNF-alpha bound to the membrane of macrophages (mbTNF) and a receptor on CD8+ T cells (TNF-receptor II, or TNFRII), which is upregulated by treatment with recombinant HIV-1 gp120 or SDF-1 PubMed
env Pretreatment of HIV-1 infected cells with TNF alpha augments syncytia formation mediated by the interaction of HIV-1 gp120 with cell surface CD4 molecules PubMed
env Exposure of macrophages to purified CCR5- or CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces secretion of high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, RANTES, and tumor necrosis factor alpha PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 partially inhibits the negative beta-adrenergic modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in microglial cells PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Pretreatment of cells with HIV-1 gp160 results in marked inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of p59(fyn), PLC-gamma1, ras activation, and TNF-alpha secretion in anti-CD3 mAb activated CD4+ T cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp160-induced apoptosis is affected in part by the release of TNF-alpha and is associated with attenuated Bcl-2 mRNA expression PubMed
env Pretreatment of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 gp160 results in marked inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env HIV-1 gp41 stimulates microglial cell production of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6) and chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1alpha) PubMed
env HIV-1 gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides induce the production of interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); in contrast, gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides are able to depress the production of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef-mediated activation of TACE cleaves pro-TNF alpha in endosomal compartments PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits IFN-gamm-induced apoptosis and upregulates TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MIP-3alpha production by Caco-2 cells while downregulating IL-10 production PubMed
nef Both the myristoylation site and the acidic cluster in HIV-1 Nef are required for the activation of NF-kappaB, which induces upregulation of TNFalpha and IL6 expression PubMed
nef Stimulation of CD8+ T cells with HIV-1 Nef peptides upregulates perforin and TNF-alpha expression PubMed
nef Nef inhibits ASK1/p38MAPK-dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced TNF-alpha production by inhibiting binding of ATF2 to the TNF-alpha promoter PubMed
nef Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced TNF-alpha production depends upon the Ets, Egr, Sp1, CRE or AP1 binding sites on the TNF-alpha promoter, whereas Nef-mediated promoter activation depends only on the CRE and AP1 binding sites PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef impairs the recruitment of TNF-alpha-positive compartments at the site of phagocytosis PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef significantly increases TNF-alpha release from Nef-treated homeostatic or inflamed mucosal cell lines. Nef abrogates the IFN-gamma-induced modulation of TNF-alpha secretion in these cells PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef and ALK show similar effects by increasing different cytokines/chemokines, such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and RANTES, that may be relevant for HAD pathogenesis PubMed
nef Expression of HIV-1 Nef in a CD4+ human T-cell hybridoma enhances the surface levels of the membrane-bound cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and LIGHT; the enhancement of TNF and LIGHT depends on the presence of a functional dileucine motif in Nef PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef expression by immature human and macaque dendritic cells (DCs) upregulates IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha, CXCL8, CCL3, and CCL4 release, but without upregulating co-stimulatory and other molecules characteristic of mature DCs PubMed
nef Intracisternal HIV-1 Nef injection upregulates levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in rat cerebrospinal fluid PubMed
nef The activating effect of exogenous HIV-1 Nef on PBMC proliferation and on monocyte-derived macrophages is associated with an upregulation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 production PubMed
nef Nef-induced expression of TNF-alpha is observed in rat hippocampus grafted with Nef-transduced macrophages PubMed
nef HIV-1 nef gene expression in human glial cells inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation through the activation of MAPK and JNK PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef increases the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from primary human-monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected with HIV-1 PubMed
nef The presence of recombinant HIV-1 Nef and ethanol upregulates the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in primary human brain micro vascular endothelial cells PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Stimulation of CD8+ T cells with HIV-1 Gag peptides upregulates perforin and TNF-alpha expression PubMed
gag HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles expressed by recombinant baculoviruses activate human PBMC to release TNF-alpha in a dose and time dependent manner PubMed
gag Stimulation of HIV-1 infected human adipocytes by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta increases the levels of HIV-1 Gag production PubMed
gag The Matrix protein of HIV-1 Gag enhances the cytokine-induced production of TNF-alpha PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the production of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-alpha1, and IFN-gamma, in human monocyte derived-dendritic cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat significantly decreases TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion but increases IL-4 levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits CpG-A-induced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10 proteins in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat- and oxovanadate-treated microglial cells synergistically induce release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta proteins, which involves CD45 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways PubMed
tat LRRK2 is involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced cytokine TNF-alpha, IL-6, and MCP-1 expression in microglia cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated stimulation of TNF-alpha production through the activation of PKC beta(II) and delta isoforms requires p38 MAP kinase, ERK1/2 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB transcription factor in human macrophages PubMed
tat Exogenous Nef and TNF-alpha synergistically activate NF-kappaB and AP-1 resulting in enhancing HIV-1 Tat transactivation of the LTR and viral replication in both chronically infected promonocytic cells and acutely infected primary macrophages PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat in combination with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increases CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes through the activation of the p38, Jnk, and Akt signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors, NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat from subtype E virus isolates inhibits TNF gene transcription and protein production in CD4(+) Jurkat T cells, and this repression is associated with the tryptophan at residue 32 of Tat PubMed
tat Over-expression of PPARalpha or PPARgamma attenuates Tat-induced up-regulation of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CCL2, and E-selectin PubMed
tat Wild-type Tat but not Cys-22 and oxidized Tat induces CD1A-expressing monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) maturation and increases the production of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-12, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta PubMed
tat Monocytes treated with HIV-1 clade B Tat show significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, as compared to clade C Tat-treated cultures PubMed
tat Recombinant CD40L synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to increase TNF-alpha release from primary human monocytes and microglia in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. This synergism is attributed to a Tat-mediated up-regulation of CD40 PubMed
tat Sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG) significantly reverses HIV-1 Tat-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in THP-1 cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat increases CXCL10 expression in IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha stimulated human astrocytes via NADPH oxidase PubMed
tat Induction of TNF-alpha by HIV-1 Tat requires activation of NF-kappa B and also involves protein kinase A, tyrosine kinase, phospholipase C, protein kinase C, MAPK, and release of calcium from inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-regulated stores PubMed
tat Upregulation of TNF-alpha by HIV-1 Tat is implicated in the toxic effects of Tat, including neuronal death and astroglial dysfunction PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat interacts with TNF-alpha to induce monocyte metalloproteinase-9 production PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat interacts with TNF-alpha to potentiate NF-kappa B activation by downregulation of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) PubMed
tat Upregulation of TNF-alpha by HIV-1 Tat leads to activation of NF-kappa B, leading to NF-kappa B induced activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits TNF-alpha-induced repression of tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 and amplifies TNF-alpha activity in stably tat-transfected HeLa cells PubMed
tat IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma synergize with HIV-1 Tat to promote in nude mice the development of angioproliferative Kaposi's sarcoma-like lesions PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat and TNF-alpha interact additively in upregulating IL-8 production PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat synergizes with TNF-alpha to induce the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat synergizes with TNF-alpha to enhance IL-6 secretion and activate human central nervous system-derived endothelial cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, an effect mediated in U937 cells through the inhibition of CD26 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced calcium mobilization and TNF-alpha production in primary human monocytes are entirely regulated by DHP receptors PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat and TNF-alpha synergistically activate the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells PubMed
tat Treatment of T lymphocytes with IL-2, IL-6 and TNFalpha increases CDK9 and cyclin T1 protein levels, suggesting a mechanism for activation of HIV-1 Tat function and reactivation of HIV-1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes harboring a latent provirus PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat cooperates with Puralpha, cyclin T1, and CDK9 to activate the TNFalpha promoter and upregulate TNFalpha expression PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr expression results in increased IkappaB-alpha levels in the presence of TNF-alpha treatment in differentiated U937 cells PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits the NFkappaB signaling pathway in TNF-alpha treated cells and abolishes the phosphorylation of NFkappaB p65 subunit in response to such treatment PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances TNF-alpha production in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DC). Vpr-induced TNF-alpha production in DC is through STAT1 activation PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits TNFalpha induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances HIV-1 reproduction in U1 cells by the induction of TNFalpha PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr modulates expression of TNFalpha, increasing or suppressing TNFalpha expression through varying effects on NF-kappa B activity in different cell lines PubMed
Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu interferes with beta-TrCP to inhibit TNF-alpha-induced activation of NFkappaB PubMed
matrix gag HIV-1 matrix protein colocalizes with syndecan-2, syndecan-4, and CD44v3 on activated CD4+ T cells to modulate TNF-alpha and IL2 production PubMed
gag HIV-1 Matrix slightly enhances TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secretion induced by IL-15 monocyte stimulation and counteracts IL-4 mediated inhibition in the production of these cytokines PubMed
gag HIV-1 Matrix enhances the cytokine-induced production of TNF-alpha PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database

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    Hematopoietic cell lineage, conserved biosystemBlood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid proge...
  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
  • Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), organism-specific biosystemHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricles with histological feat...
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), conserved biosystemHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricles with histological feat...
  • IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    IL23-mediated signaling events
  • IL27-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL27-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    IL27-mediated signaling events
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
  • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAn integrated pathway model which displays the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the relevant proteins for pancreatic cancer. This pathway is a collection of different mechanistic protein pat...
  • Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
  • Legionellosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Legionellosis, conserved biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
  • Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
  • Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • Malaria, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, organism-specific biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...
  • Malaria, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, conserved biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Matrix Metalloproteinases, organism-specific biosystemMatrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases; other family members are adamalysins, serralysins, and astacins. The MMPs belong to a larger family of proteases known as the metzi...
  • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
  • Monoamine Transport, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Monoamine Transport, organism-specific biosystem
    Monoamine Transport
  • NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are...
  • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
  • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
  • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
  • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Notch Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Notch Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved, intercellular signaling mechanism essential for proper embryonic development in all metazoan organisms in the Animal kingdom. The Notch pro...
  • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
  • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pertussis, conserved biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
  • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
  • RXR and RAR heterodimerization with other nuclear receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    RXR and RAR heterodimerization with other nuclear receptor, organism-specific biosystem
    RXR and RAR heterodimerization with other nuclear receptor
  • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • SIDS Susceptibility Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    SIDS Susceptibility Pathways, organism-specific biosystemIn this model, we provide an integrated view of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) at the level of implicated tissues, signaling networks and genetics. The purpose of this model is to serve as an ov...
  • Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Selenium Pathway
  • Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I
  • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Systemic lupus erythematosus, organism-specific biosystemSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterised by the production of IgG autoantibodies that are specific for self-antigens, such as DNA, nuclear proteins and cert...
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Systemic lupus erythematosus, conserved biosystemSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterised by the production of IgG autoantibodies that are specific for self-antigens, such as DNA, nuclear proteins and cert...
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • TGF Beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TGF Beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiat...
  • TGF-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species r...
  • TGF-beta signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species r...
  • TNF receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    TNF receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    TNF receptor signaling pathway
  • TNF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TNF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mediated apoptosis pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases including sepsis, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, multiple scler...
  • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
  • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
  • TNF-alpha/NF-kB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TNF-alpha/NF-kB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem"The Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the TNF superfamily. It signals through 2 separate receptors - TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B, both members of the TNF receptor supe...
  • TWEAK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TWEAK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a small pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF super family and its gene is located at chromosome 17p13.1. TWEAK has been reported to be expressed in tissues...
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystemAdipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. During this process the preadipocytes cease to proliferate, begin to accumulate lipid droplets and develo...
  • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • Type I diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type I diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemType I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-pre...
  • Type I diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type I diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemType I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-pre...
  • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    amb2 Integrin signaling
  • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    mTOR signaling pathway
  • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem
    mTOR signaling pathway
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
cytokine activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protease binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transcription regulatory region DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
tumor necrosis factor receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
JNK cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
MAPK cascade IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
 
activation of MAPK activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
activation of MAPKKK activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
apoptotic signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
calcium-mediated signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell activation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular amino acid biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to amino acid stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to nicotine IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to organic cyclic compound IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
defense response to Gram-positive bacterium IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
embryonic digestive tract development IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
 
epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular matrix organization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
 
glucose metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
humoral immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
leukocyte tethering or rolling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
necroptotic signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of L-glutamate transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of branching involved in lung morphogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of fat cell differentiation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of glucose import IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of interleukin-6 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid storage NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of protein complex disassembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of viral genome replication IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
organ morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
osteoclast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of JNK cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of JUN kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of MAP kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NFAT protein import into nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chemokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of fever generation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
positive regulation of hair follicle development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of interferon-gamma production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-18 production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mitosis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of podosome assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of programmed cell death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein complex assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein complex disassembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of protein localization to cell surface IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of synaptic transmission IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of translational initiation by iron IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein import into nucleus, translocation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase B signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
 
receptor biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of branching involved in salivary gland morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of immunoglobulin secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of insulin secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucocorticoid IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to mechanical stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to salt stress TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to virus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
sequestering of triglyceride IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
skeletal muscle contraction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transformed cell apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell surface IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
external side of plasma membrane ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane raft IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phagocytic cup ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
recycling endosome ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Preferred Names
tumor necrosis factor
Names
tumor necrosis factor
TNF-a
cachectin
APC1 protein
TNF, monocyte-derived
TNF, macrophage-derived
tumor necrosis factor-alpha
tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007462.1 

    Range
    4995..7764
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000594.3NP_000585.2  tumor necrosis factor

    See proteins identical to NP_000585.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC028148, BP215875, CA306559
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4702.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01375
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5STB3
    Related
    ENSP00000398698, OTTHUMP00000029281, ENST00000449264, OTTHUMT00000076390
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00184
    Location:88231
    Blast Score: 360
    TNF; Tumor Necrosis Factor; TNF superfamily members include the cytokines: TNF (TNF-alpha), LT (lymphotoxin-alpha, TNF-beta), CD40 ligand, Apo2L (TRAIL), Fas ligand, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) ligand. These proteins generally have an intracellular N-terminal ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

Genomic

  1. NT_167244.2 

    Range
    2909108..2910915
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38 ALT_REF_LOCI_2

Genomic

  1. NT_113891.3 

    Range
    3052854..3055623
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38 ALT_REF_LOCI_3

Genomic

  1. NT_167245.2 

    Range
    2823300..2826069
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38 ALT_REF_LOCI_4

Genomic

  1. NT_167246.2 

    Range
    2880608..2883377
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38 ALT_REF_LOCI_5

Genomic

  1. NT_167247.2 

    Range
    2917465..2920234
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38 ALT_REF_LOCI_6

Genomic

  1. NT_167248.2 

    Range
    2831386..2834157
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38 ALT_REF_LOCI_7

Genomic

  1. NT_167249.2 

    Range
    2874847..2877616
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 

    Range
    31575567..31578336
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000138.1 

    Range
    31330078..31332847
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018917.2 

    Range
    31545476..31548245
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)