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    APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 336, updated on 9-Aug-2015
    Official Symbol
    APOA2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    apolipoprotein A-IIprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:601
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000158874; HPRD:00129; MIM:107670; Vega:OTTHUMG00000034346
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    apoAII; Apo-AII; ApoA-II
    Summary
    This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, which is the second most abundant protein of the high density lipoprotein particles. The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result in apolipoprotein A-II deficiency or hypercholesterolemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    See APOA2 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
    Location:
    1q23.3
    Exon count:
    4
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 1 NC_000001.11 (161222293..161223628, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (161192083..161193418, complement)

    Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 4 Neighboring gene NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 2, 49kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) Neighboring gene Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; gamma polypeptide Neighboring gene translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast)-like Neighboring gene microRNA 5187 Neighboring gene nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    • Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystemChylomicrons transport triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesterol derived from dietary lipid from the small intestine to other tissues of the body. Each chylomicron assembles around a single mole...
    • Complement and Coagulation Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Complement and Coagulation Cascades, organism-specific biosystemBlood coagulation is a series of coordinated and calcium-dependent proenzyme-to-serine protease conversions likely to be localized on the surfaces of activated cells in vivo. It culminates in the for...
    • Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystemThe reactions involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and of the triacylglycerols and ketone bodies derived from them form a closely interrelated, coordinately regulated module that plays a central...
    • Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystemProcesses annotated here include the digestion of dietary lipids, sterol uptake, the formation and turnover of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL), and the mobilization of fatty acids thr...
    • Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystemBecause of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport ...
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
    • PPAR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PPAR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) s...
    • PPAR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PPAR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) s...
    • PPARA activates gene expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PPARA activates gene expression, organism-specific biosystemThe set of genes regulated by PPAR-alpha is not fully known in humans, however many examples have been found in mice. Genes directly activated by PPAR-alpha contain peroxisome proliferator receptor e...
    • Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), organism-specific biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is the major regulator of fatty acid oxidation in the liver. PPARalpha is also the target of fibrate drugs used to treat abnormal plasma ...
    • Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be taken up, either as carotenes from plants, or as retinyl esters from animal food. The most prominent carotenes are alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptox...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystemStatins inhibit endogenous cholesterol production by competitive inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early rate-limiting step in...
    • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    apolipoprotein receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    cholesterol binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    contributes_to cholesterol transporter activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    high-density lipoprotein particle binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    high-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipase inhibitor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid transporter activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphatidylcholine binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phospholipid binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein heterodimerization activity IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein homodimerization activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    acute inflammatory response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular lipid metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cholesterol efflux IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cholesterol homeostasis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cholesterol metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    diacylglycerol catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    high-density lipoprotein particle assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    high-density lipoprotein particle clearance IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipoprotein metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cholesterol import IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cholesterol transport IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cholesterol transporter activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of lipase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    organ regeneration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    peptidyl-methionine modification IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phospholipid catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phospholipid efflux IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phototransduction, visible light TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of catalytic activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cholesterol esterification IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein folding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein oxidation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of protein stability IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to drug IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to estrogen IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to glucocorticoid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to glucose IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    retinoid metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    reverse cholesterol transport IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    small molecule metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    triglyceride metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    viral process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    blood microparticle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    chylomicron IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    early endosome TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    high-density lipoprotein particle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    spherical high-density lipoprotein particle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    very-low-density lipoprotein particle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    apolipoprotein A-II
    Names
    apolipoprotein A2

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_012043.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..6336
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001643.1NP_001634.1  apolipoprotein A-II preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001634.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      X02619
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS1226.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P02652
      Related
      ENSP00000356969, OTTHUMP00000032244, ENST00000367990, OTTHUMT00000083037
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam04711
      Location:2499
      ApoA-II; Apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II)

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

      Range
      161222293..161223628
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018912.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      162588335..162589660
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)