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    GRIA2 glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2891, updated on 20-Aug-2016
    Official Symbol
    GRIA2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4572
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000120251 HPRD:04726; MIM:138247; Vega:OTTHUMG00000133836
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    GLUR2; GLURB; GluA2; HBGR2; GluR-K2
    Summary
    Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled from 4 related subunits, GRIA1-4. The subunit encoded by this gene (GRIA2) is subject to RNA editing (CAG->CGG; Q->R) within the second transmembrane domain, which is thought to render the channel impermeable to Ca(2+). Human and animal studies suggest that pre-mRNA editing is essential for brain function, and defective GRIA2 RNA editing at the Q/R site may be relevant to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology. Alternative splicing, resulting in transcript variants encoding different isoforms, (including the flip and flop isoforms that vary in their signal transduction properties), has been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    4q32.1
    Exon count:
    20
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 4 NC_000004.12 (157205099..157370583)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (158141736..158287227)

    Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 582, pseudogene Neighboring gene chromatin accessibility complex 1 pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986238 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC340017

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    Knockdown of glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2 (GRIA2) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • Activation of AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Activation of AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystemAMPA receptors are functionally either Ca permeable or Ca impermeable based on the subunit composition. Ca permeability is determined by GluR2 subunit which undergoes post-transcriptional RNA editin...
    • Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events, organism-specific biosystemNMDA receptors are a subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors that are specifically activated by a glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Activation of NMDA receptor involves opening of the ...
    • Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
    • Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), organism-specific biosystemAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, lethal, degenerative disorder of motor neurons. The hallmark of this disease is the selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord...
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), conserved biosystemAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, lethal, degenerative disorder of motor neurons. The hallmark of this disease is the selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord...
    • BDNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      BDNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for growth, differentiation, plasticity, and survival of neurons. BDNF is also required for processes such as energy metabolism, b...
    • Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
    • Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
    • Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
    • Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
    • Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
    • Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
    • Glutamate Binding, Activation of AMPA Receptors and Synaptic Plasticity, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Glutamate Binding, Activation of AMPA Receptors and Synaptic Plasticity, organism-specific biosystemExcitatory synaptic transmission in the brain is carried out by glutamate receptors through the activation of both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Ionotropic glutamate receptors are of three ...
    • Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
    • Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
    • Hypothetical Network for Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Hypothetical Network for Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystemAdapted from figure 2 in [http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.0040002 Li et al.].
    • Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
    • Long-term depression, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term depression, conserved biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
    • Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
    • Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
    • N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      N-cadherin signaling events
    • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    • Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystemThe human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication a...
    • Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystemThe neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft released by the pre-synaptic neuron binds specific receptors located on the post-synaptic terminal. These receptors are either ion channels or G protein cou...
    • Nicotine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Nicotine addiction, organism-specific biosystemNicotine is one of the main psychoactive ingredients in tobacco that contributes to the harmful tobacco smoking habit. A common feature of addictive drugs, including nicotine, is that they increase d...
    • Nicotine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Nicotine addiction, conserved biosystemNicotine is one of the main psychoactive ingredients in tobacco that contributes to the harmful tobacco smoking habit. A common feature of addictive drugs, including nicotine, is that they increase d...
    • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
    • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
    • Trafficking of AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Trafficking of AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystemRepetitive presynaptic activity causes long lasting changes in the postsynaptic transmission by changing the type and the number of AMPA receptors. These changes are brought about by trafficking mec...
    • Trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystemTrafficking of GluR2-containing receptors is governed by protein protein interactions that are regulated by phosphorylation events. GluR2 binds NSF and AP2 in the proximal C terminal region and binds...
    • Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystemChemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron,...
    • Unblocking of NMDA receptor, glutamate binding and activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Unblocking of NMDA receptor, glutamate binding and activation, organism-specific biosystemAt resting membrane potential the NMDA receptor is blocked by extracellular Mg2+ ions and therefore is not activated in this state by ligands (glutamate, glycine, NMDA). The voltage block is removed ...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    AMPA glutamate receptor activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    excitatory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    ionotropic glutamate receptor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    chemical synaptic transmission TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    ion transmembrane transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    AMPA glutamate receptor complex IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    AMPA glutamate receptor complex ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cell junction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    endocytic vesicle membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    integral component of plasma membrane ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    postsynaptic membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    glutamate receptor 2
    Names
    AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 2
    gluR-2
    gluR-B
    glutamate receptor B flip isoform
    glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000826.3NP_000817.2  glutamate receptor 2 isoform 1 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000817.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform 1 (also known as flip isoform). RNA editing (CAG->CGG) changes aa Gln607Arg.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC079233, BC010574, BC028736, BP202382, DA228330, DA810082, L20814
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS3797.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P42262
      Related
      ENSP00000296526, OTTHUMP00000165322, ENST00000296526, OTTHUMT00000258366
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd06389
      Location:28397
      PBP1_iGluR_AMPA_GluR2; N-terminal leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein (LIVBP)-like domain of the GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor
      cd13715
      Location:413794
      PBP2_iGluR_AMPA; The ligand-binding domain of the AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding fold protein superfamily
      pfam00060
      Location:545824
      Lig_chan; Ligand-gated ion channel
      pfam01094
      Location:56379
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    2. NM_001083619.1NP_001077088.1  glutamate receptor 2 isoform 2 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001077088.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate coding exon compared to transcript variant 1, and encodes an isoform (2, also known as flop isoform) that is the same length, but with a few amino acid differences from isoform 1. RNA editing (CAG->CGG) changes aa Gln607Arg.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC079233, BC010574, BC028736, BP202382, DA228330, DA810082, L20814
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS43274.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P42262
      Related
      ENSP00000264426, OTTHUMP00000165323, ENST00000264426, OTTHUMT00000258367
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd06389
      Location:28397
      PBP1_iGluR_AMPA_GluR2; N-terminal leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein (LIVBP)-like domain of the GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor
      pfam00060
      Location:545824
      Lig_chan; Ligand-gated ion channel
      pfam01094
      Location:56379
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      cd13715
      Location:413794
      PBP2_iGluR_AMPA; The ligand-binding domain of the AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding fold protein superfamily
    3. NM_001083620.1NP_001077089.1  glutamate receptor 2 isoform 3

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains a different 5' end exon compared to transcript variant 1, resulting in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream AUG, and an isoform (3) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. RNA editing (CAG->CGG) changes aa Gln560Arg.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC079233, BC010574, BC028736, BP202686, L20814
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS43275.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P42262
      Related
      ENSP00000377403, OTTHUMP00000165324, ENST00000393815, OTTHUMT00000258369
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      pfam00060
      Location:498777
      Lig_chan; Ligand-gated ion channel
      pfam01094
      Location:9332
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      cd13715
      Location:366747
      PBP2_iGluR_AMPA; The ligand-binding domain of the AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding fold protein superfamily
      cl10011
      Location:1350
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      157205099..157370583
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_017008115.1XP_016863604.1  

    2. XM_017008114.1XP_016863603.1  

    3. XM_017008116.1XP_016863605.1  

      Related
      ENSP00000426845, OTTHUMP00000220942, ENST00000507898, OTTHUMT00000366624
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd13715
      Location:366747
      PBP2_iGluR_AMPA; The ligand-binding domain of the AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding fold protein superfamily
      pfam00060
      Location:498777
      Lig_chan; Ligand-gated ion channel
      pfam01094
      Location:9332
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      cl10011
      Location:1350
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    4. XM_017008117.1XP_016863606.1  

      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd13715
      Location:366747
      PBP2_iGluR_AMPA; The ligand-binding domain of the AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding fold protein superfamily
      pfam00060
      Location:498777
      Lig_chan; Ligand-gated ion channel
      pfam01094
      Location:9332
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      cl10011
      Location:1350
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    5. XM_017008113.1XP_016863602.1  

      Related
      ENSP00000318144, OTTHUMP00000220943, ENST00000323661, OTTHUMT00000366625

    RNA

    1. XR_001741212.1 RNA Sequence

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018915.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      158118907..158264349
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)