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    ACTA2 actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 59, updated on 19-Jul-2015
    Official Symbol
    ACTA2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aortaprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:130
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000107796; HPRD:00031; MIM:102620; Vega:OTTHUMG00000018700
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    AAT6; ACTSA; MYMY5
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the actin family of proteins, which are highly conserved proteins that play a role in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha, beta and gamma actin isoforms have been identified, with alpha actins being a major constituent of the contractile apparatus, while beta and gamma actins are involved in the regulation of cell motility. This actin is an alpha actin that is found in skeletal muscle. Defects in this gene cause aortic aneurysm familial thoracic type 6. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
    Orthologs
    See ACTA2 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
    Location:
    10q23.3
    Exon count:
    10
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 10 NC_000010.11 (88935074..88991390, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 10 NC_000010.10 (90694831..90751147, complement)

    Chromosome 10 - NC_000010.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene pentatricopeptide repeat domain 2 pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene STAM binding protein-like 1 Neighboring gene ACTA2 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene Fas cell surface death receptor Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105378417 Neighboring gene FAS antisense RNA 1

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Professional guidelines

    Description
    Professional guideline
    ACMG 2013

    The ACMG recommends that laboratories performing clinical sequencing seek and report mutations in ACTA2 that are pathogenic or expected to be pathogenic.

    GuidelinePubMed

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 6 Compare labs
    Moyamoya disease 5
    MedGen: C3279690 OMIM: 614042 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome
    MedGen: C3151201 OMIM: 613834 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    A genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Association of IFIH1 and other autoimmunity risk alleles with selective IgA deficiency.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Deciphering the impact of common genetic variation on lung cancer risk: a genome-wide association study.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Gelsolin overexpression impairs HIV-1 gp120-induced cortical F-actin reorganization and capping and gp120-mediated CD4-CCR5 and CD4-CXCR4 redistribution in permissive lymphocytes PubMed
    env The N-terminal leucine-rich repeat fragment of Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 gp120-induced actin polymerization in T cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-CXCR4 signaling triggers cofilin activation and actin reorganization, which are important for a post entry process leading to viral nuclear localization PubMed
    env Syntenin-1 is recruited toward HIV-1 gp120/gp41-driven virus/cell and cell/cell contacts, associates with CD4, limits HIV-1-induced cell fusion and viral entry, and modulates gp120/gp41-triggered actin polymerization and PIP2 accumulation PubMed
    env HIV-1 X4-tropic gp120 upregulates alpha-SMA (ACTA2) and collagen I alpha 1 expression via the ERK1/2 pathway in a CXCR4-dependent manner in activated human hepatic stellate cells PubMed
    env Inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) affects viral entry and gp120-induced actin reorganization PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Syntenin-1 is recruited toward HIV-1 gp120/gp41-driven virus/cell and cell/cell contacts, associates with CD4, limits HIV-1-induced cell fusion and viral entry, and modulates gp120/gp41-triggered actin polymerization and PIP2 accumulation PubMed
    env The interaction of the long cytoplasmic tail of HIV-1 gp41 with the carboxy-terminal regulatory domain of p115-RhoGEF inhibits p115-mediated actin stress fiber formation and activation of serum response factor (SRF) PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef co-localizes with F-actin and reorganizes F-actin assembly in the cortical regions of human podocyte PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits CXCL12 induced chemotaxis in Jurkat cells, monocytes, and PBMCs, which leads to marked downregulation of F-actin accumulation in cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef induces loss of F-actin assembly and inhibits retinoid receptor-mediated transcription PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef requires a PAK2 recruitment motif (F195/191I) for inhibition of actin remodeling and induction of cofilin hyperphosphorylation PubMed
    Pr55(Gag) gag Tec kinase chemical inhibitors diminish the recruitment of ITK to the plasma membrane perturbing HIV-1 Gag-ITK co-localization, disrupting F-actin polymerization, and inhibiting HIV-1 release and replication PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Gag, ITK, and F-actin are located in overlapping and discrete regions of T cell-T cell contact sites PubMed
    gag Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Gag assembly and budding occur through an actin-driven mechanism PubMed
    Tat tat Treatment with cannabinoids inhibits HIV-1 Tat-enhanced attachment of U937 cells to collagen IV, laminin, or ECM1 proteins, which is linked to the cannabinoid receptor type 2 and the modulation of beta1-integrin and actin distribution PubMed
    tat Treatment of primary hippocampal neurons with HIV-1 Tat produces a significant early reduction in F-actin labeled puncta. The cysteine rich domain (residues 22-37) of Tat is required for Tat-mediated reduction of F-actin labeled puncta PubMed
    tat Uptake of the HIV-1 Tat protein is regulated by arrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in epithelial cells PubMed
    tat In Jurkat cells expressing HIV-1 Tat, decreased expression levels are found for basic cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, beta-tubulin, annexin, cofilin, gelsolin, and Rac/Rho-GDI complex PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat induces actin cytoskeletal rearrangements through p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and downstream activation of the endothelial NADPH oxidase, an effect that is lost by introduction of mutations into the Tat cysteine-rich or basic domains PubMed
    Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies downregulation of actin, alpha 2 (ACTA2) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed
    matrix gag The localization of the HIV-1 reverse transcription complex to actin microfilaments is mediated by the interaction of a reverse transcription complex component (HIV-1 Matrix) with actin, but not vimentin (intermediate filaments) or tubulin (microtubules) PubMed
    nucleocapsid gag HIV-1 NC-like aggregates are associated with dsDNA synthesis by HIV-1 RT and appear to efficiently bind to F-actin filaments, a property that may be involved in targeting complexes to the nuclear envelope PubMed
    gag Mature HIV-1 Nucleocapsid, as well as the nucleocapsid domain of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, binds filamentous actin resulting in incorporation of actin into virus particles and enhancement of cell motility PubMed
    retropepsin gag-pol Actin, one of the most abundant proteins of the cell, is hydrolyzed by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease during acute infection of cultured human T lymphocytes PubMed
    gag-pol HIV-1 protease cleaves actin in vitro at amino acid residues 66-67, 94-95, and 126-127 PubMed
    reverse transcriptase gag-pol HIV-1 NC-like aggregates are associated with dsDNA synthesis by HIV-1 RT and appear to efficiently bind to F-actin filaments, a property that may be involved in targeting complexes to the nuclear envelope PubMed
    gag-pol The localization of the HIV-1 reverse transcription complex to actin microfilaments is mediated by the interaction of a reverse transcription complex component (HIV-1 Matrix) with actin, but not vimentin (intermediate filaments) or tubulin (microtubules) PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemIn this module, the processes by which calcium binding triggers actin - myosin interactions and force generation in smooth and striated muscle tissues are annotated.
    • Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway illustrates signaling networks implicated in uterine muscle contraction at labor and quiescence throughout gestation (pregnancy). The muscle of the uterus, responsible for contractile ac...
    • Smooth Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Smooth Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystemLayers of smooth muscle cells can be found in the walls of numerous organs and tissues within the body. Smooth muscle tissue lacks the striated banding pattern characteristic of skeletal and cardiac ...
    • Striated Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Striated Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystemMuscle contraction is the process where muscle tissue is activated by a signal from the nervous system. In case of voluntary action the nervous signals are initiated from the brain by so called actio...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    ATP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein kinase binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    glomerular mesangial cell development IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    mesenchyme migration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    muscle contraction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of gene expression ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of blood pressure IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to virus IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular smooth muscle contraction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    actin cytoskeleton IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell body ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    filopodium ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    lamellipodium ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    protein complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    smooth muscle contractile fiber IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    actin, aortic smooth muscle
    Names
    alpha-cardiac actin
    cell growth-inhibiting gene 46 protein

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_011541.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..61317
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_781

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001141945.1NP_001135417.1  actin, aortic smooth muscle

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001135417.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AY692464, DC304647, DC354672, DC385559
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7392.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      D2JYH4
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P62736
      Related
      ENSP00000402373, ENST00000458208
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd00012
      Location:10183
      NBD_sugar-kinase_HSP70_actin; Nucleotide-Binding Domain of the sugar kinase/HSP70/actin superfamily
      pfam00022
      Location:5377
      Actin; Actin
    2. NM_001613.2NP_001604.1  actin, aortic smooth muscle

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001604.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC093052, BP379410, BQ029841
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7392.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      D2JYH4
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P62736
      Related
      ENSP00000224784, OTTHUMP00000020042, ENST00000224784, OTTHUMT00000049264
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd00012
      Location:10183
      NBD_sugar-kinase_HSP70_actin; Nucleotide-Binding Domain of the sugar kinase/HSP70/actin superfamily
      pfam00022
      Location:5377
      Actin; Actin

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000010.11 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

      Range
      88935074..88991390
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011540016.1XP_011538318.1  

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011538318.1

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      D2JYH4
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P62736
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd00012
      Location:10183
      NBD_sugar-kinase_HSP70_actin; Nucleotide-Binding Domain of the sugar kinase/HSP70/actin superfamily
      pfam00022
      Location:5377
      Actin; Actin

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018921.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      90976918..91033207
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)