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    LPA lipoprotein(a) [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 4018, updated on 26-Jul-2016
    Official Symbol
    LPAprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    lipoprotein(a)provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:6667
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000198670 HPRD:01063; MIM:152200; Vega:OTTHUMG00000015956
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    LP; AK38; APOA
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is a serine proteinase that inhibits the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator I. The encoded protein constitutes a substantial portion of lipoprotein(a) and is proteolytically cleaved, resulting in fragments that attach to atherosclerotic lesions and promote thrombogenesis. Elevated plasma levels of this protein are linked to atherosclerosis. Depending on the individual, the encoded protein contains 2-43 copies of kringle-type domains. The allele represented here contains 15 copies of the kringle-type repeats and corresponds to that found in the reference genome sequence. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    6q26
    Exon count:
    40
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 6 NC_000006.12 (160531483..160666375, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (160952506..161097478, complement)

    Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene solute carrier family 22 member 3 Neighboring gene lipoprotein(a) like 2, pseudogene Neighboring gene plasminogen Neighboring gene plasminogen-like protein B Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105378091

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs).
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic and clinical correlates of early-outgrowth colony-forming units.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic associations with valvular calcification and aortic stenosis.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic determinants of statin-induced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction: the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic variants in PLG, LPA and SIGLEC 14 as well as smoking contribute to plasma plasminogen levels.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic variants, plasma lipoprotein(a) levels, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among two prospective cohorts of type 2 diabetes.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study evaluating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity at baseline and after rosuvastatin therapy.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study of genetic determinants of LDL-c response to atorvastatin therapy: importance of Lp(a).
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study of plasma lipoprotein(a) levels identifies multiple genes on chromosome 6q.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide characterization of shared and distinct genetic components that influence blood lipid levels in ethnically diverse human populations.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide haplotype association study identifies the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster as a risk locus for coronary artery disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Novel association to the proprotein convertase PCSK7 gene locus revealed by analysing soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of LDL cholesterol response to statins.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Shared genetic susceptibility to ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease: a genome-wide analysis of common variants.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    • LDL-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      LDL-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystemLDL (low density lipoproteins) are complexes of a single molecule of apoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) non-covalently associated with triacylglycerol, free cholesterol, cholesterol esters, and phospholipid...
    • Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystemProcesses annotated here include the digestion of dietary lipids, sterol uptake, the formation and turnover of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL), and the mobilization of fatty acids thr...
    • Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystemBecause of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport ...
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
    • amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      amb2 Integrin signaling
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    apolipoprotein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    endopeptidase inhibitor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    fibronectin binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    heparin binding NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    blood circulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid metabolic process NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    lipoprotein metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    negative regulation of endopeptidase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    proteolysis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    extracellular region NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    plasma lipoprotein particle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    apolipoprotein(a)
    Names
    antiangiogenic AK38 protein
    apo(a)
    lipoprotein, Lp(a)
    lp(a)
    NP_005568.2

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_016147.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..139893
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_005577.2NP_005568.2  apolipoprotein(a) precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005568.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL109933, AL596089
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS43523.1
      Related
      ENSP00000321334, OTTHUMP00000017543, ENST00000316300, OTTHUMT00000042957
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      smart00020
      Location:18202033
      Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease
      cd00108
      Location:16141694
      KR; Kringle domain; Kringle domains are believed to play a role in binding mediators, such as peptides, other proteins, membranes, or phospholipids. They are autonomous structural domains, found in a varying number of copies, in blood clotting and ...
      cd00190
      Location:18202034
      Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      160531483..160666375 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018917.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      161216055..161349820 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)