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    ATF2 activating transcription factor 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 1386, updated on 22-Aug-2016
    Official Symbol
    ATF2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    activating transcription factor 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:784
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000115966 HPRD:00443; MIM:123811; Vega:OTTHUMG00000132424
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    HB16; CREB2; TREB7; CREB-2; CRE-BP1
    Summary
    This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    2q32
    Exon count:
    17
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 2 NC_000002.12 (175072250..175168206, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (175936978..176032934, complement)

    Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 1290, pseudogene Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L21 pseudogene 31 Neighboring gene microRNA 933 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 14 Neighboring gene ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex subunit C3 (subunit 9)

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 and p300 synergistically increase TGF-beta, ATF-2 and activating protein-1 (AP-1) expression leading to tubular cell apoptosis; in addition, HIV-1 gp120 treatment causes phosphorylation of Smad2 and downregulation of c-Jun PubMed
    Nef nef ATF2 mRNA is selectively retained in HIV-1 Nef-expressing cellular exosomes, and three miRNAs (miR-17, miR-92a, and miR-21) which target ATF2 mRNA are selectively secreted in exosomes from these cells PubMed
    nef Nef inhibits ASK1/p38MAPK-dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced TNF-alpha production by inhibiting binding of ATF2 to the TNF-alpha promoter PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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    • Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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      ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem
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    • Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • IL-4 signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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      IL12-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
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    • MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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      RhoA signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
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    • Thyroid hormone synthesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystemIn human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) doma...
    • Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystemThe tumor suppressor TP53 (encoded by the gene p53) is a transcription factor. Under stress conditions, it recognizes specific responsive DNA elements and thus regulates the transcription of many gen...
    • Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylated PPARGC1A (PGC-1alpha) does not bind DNA directly but instead interacts with other transcription factors, notably NRF1 and NRF2 (via HCF1). NRF1 and NRF2 together with PPARGC1A activate...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemp38 MAPKs are members of the MAPK family that are activated by a variety of environmental stresses and inflammatory cytokines. Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by members of small GTPases...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Potential readthrough

    Included gene: CHN1

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC111558

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    RNA polymerase II activating transcription factor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cAMP response element binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cAMP response element binding protein binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    chromatin binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    histone acetyltransferase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    histone acetyltransferase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    metal ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein heterodimerization activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein kinase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription coactivator activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    adipose tissue development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    amelogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    fat cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    histone acetylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    intra-S DNA damage checkpoint IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    outflow tract morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta2 production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to osmotic stress IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to water deprivation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    mitochondrial outer membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    site of double-strand break IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
    Names
    activating transcription factor 2 splice variant ATF2-var2
    cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1
    cAMP responsive element binding protein 2, formerly
    cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
    cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 2
    histone acetyltransferase ATF2
    NP_001243019.1
    NP_001243020.1
    NP_001243021.1
    NP_001243022.1
    NP_001243023.1
    NP_001871.2

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_047045.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..100957
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001256090.1NP_001243019.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243019.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) contains an additional 5' non-coding exon compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003041
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS2262.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15336
      Related
      ENSP00000376327, OTTHUMP00000205344, ENST00000392544, OTTHUMT00000334472
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd12192
      Location:65102
      GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
      cd14687
      Location:354414
      bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
      sd00019
      Location:2749
      ZF_C2H2; C2H2 Zn finger [structural motif]
    2. NM_001256091.1NP_001243020.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243020.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains an additional 5' non-coding exon, and lacks another exon compared to variant 1. This results in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream AUG, and an isoform (2) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003049
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58738.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15336
      Related
      ENSP00000407911, ENST00000426833
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd12192
      Location:4784
      GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
      cd14687
      Location:336396
      bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
      sd00019
      Location:931
      ZF_C2H2; C2H2 Zn finger [structural motif]
    3. NM_001256092.1NP_001243021.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243021.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an internal exon compared to variant 1. This results in translation initiation from another start site, and a shorter isoform (3) with a distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BX648469, DA995464
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58737.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15336
      Related
      ENSP00000340576, OTTHUMP00000205354, ENST00000345739, OTTHUMT00000334483
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd12192
      Location:944
      GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
      cd14687
      Location:296356
      bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
    4. NM_001256093.1NP_001243022.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 4

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks an internal exon, and uses an alternate acceptor splice site at the 3' terminal exon compared to variant 1. This results in translation initiation from another start site, and a shorter isoform (4) with distinct N- and C- termini compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003048
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15336
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A4D7V5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd12192
      Location:944
      GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
      cd14687
      Location:296356
      bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
    5. NM_001256094.1NP_001243023.1  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 5

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243023.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks several exons from the 3' end, and has a different 3' UTR compared to variant 1. This results in an isoform (5) with a shorter C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC007435, BC026175, DA995464
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58739.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15336
      Related
      ENSP00000386526, OTTHUMP00000205351, ENST00000409833, OTTHUMT00000334479
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd12192
      Location:65102
      GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
      sd00019
      Location:2749
      ZF_C2H2; C2H2 Zn finger [structural motif]
    6. NM_001880.3NP_001871.2  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001871.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1). Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS2262.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15336
      Related
      ENSP00000264110, OTTHUMP00000163262, ENST00000264110, OTTHUMT00000255562
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd12192
      Location:65102
      GCN4_cent; GCN4 central activation domain-like acidic activation domain
      cd14687
      Location:354414
      bZIP_ATF2; Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) and similar proteins: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain
      sd00019
      Location:2749
      ZF_C2H2; C2H2 Zn finger [structural motif]

    RNA

    1. NR_045768.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7) contains two additional exons compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003043
    2. NR_045769.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (8) contains two additional exons, and uses an alternate acceptor splice site at the 3' terminal exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003036
    3. NR_045770.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (9) contains two additional exons, and lacks another exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003044
    4. NR_045771.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (10) contains an additional exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003039
    5. NR_045772.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (11) contains two additional exons, and lacks another exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003040
    6. NR_045773.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (12) contains an additional exon, and lacks another exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BC130335, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003046
    7. NR_045774.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (13) lacks an internal exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC107698, BX648469, DA995464, DQ003047
      Related
      ENST00000409437, OTTHUMT00000334481

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      175072250..175168206 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018913.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      175942954..176038909 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)