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PTGS1 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5742, updated on 6-Jul-2014
Official Symbol
PTGS1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:9604
Locus tag
RP11-542K23.6
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000095303; HPRD:07518; MIM:176805; Vega:OTTHUMG00000020605
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
COX1; COX3; PHS1; PCOX1; PES-1; PGHS1; PTGHS; PGG/HS; PGHS-1
Summary
This is one of two genes encoding similar enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachinodate to prostaglandin. The encoded protein regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells, and is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. Based on its ability to function as both a cyclooxygenase and as a peroxidase, the encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein. The protein may promote cell proliferation during tumor progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
See PTGS1 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
9q32-q33.3
Exon count :
14
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 9 NC_000009.12 (122370530..122395703)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (125132809..125157982)

Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene LIM homeobox 6 Neighboring gene RNA binding motif protein 18 Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor Neighboring gene olfactory receptor, family 1, subfamily J, member 2 Neighboring gene olfactory receptor, family 1, subfamily J, member 1 Neighboring gene olfactory receptor, family 1, subfamily J, member 4

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 increases the intracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 by upregulating the activity and expression of the arachidonate-metabolizing enzymes prostaglandin H synthase and 5-lipoxygenase, respectively PubMed
env Preincubation of human astrocytoma cells with HIV-1 gp120 produces a significant increase of nitrite and PGE2 in cell supernatants; the effect of gp120 on both nitrite and PGE2 production is inhibited by antagonists of NO synthase or cyclooxygenase PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database

  • Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystemEicosanoids, oxygenated, 20-carbon fatty acids, are autocrine and paracrine signaling molecules that modulate physiological processes including pain, fever, inflammation, blood clot formation, smooth...
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Arachidonic acid metabolism, conserved biosystem
    Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Biological oxidations, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Biological oxidations, organism-specific biosystemAll organisms are constantly exposed to foreign chemicals every day. These can be man-made (drugs, industrial chemicals) or natural (alkaloids, toxins from plants and animals). Uptake is usually via ...
  • C20 prostanoid biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    C20 prostanoid biosynthesis, conserved biosystemGeneral Background A subclass of eicosanoids, the C20 prostanoids comprise of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins. They are all lipid compounds derived from the ω6 essential fatty ...
  • COX reactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    COX reactions, organism-specific biosystemArachidonic acid (AA) is a 20 carbon unsaturated fatty acid which is present in the lipid bilayer of all mammalian cells. AA is released from the membrane by phospholipases, thus making it available...
  • Eicosanoid Synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Eicosanoid Synthesis, organism-specific biosystemIn biochemistry, eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by oxidation of twenty-carbon essential fatty acids, (EFAs). They exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or i...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds, organism-specific biosystemPhase 1 of metabolism is concerned with functionalization, that is the introduction or exposure of functional groups on the chemical structure of a compound. This provides a 'handle' for phase 2 conj...
  • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
  • Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation, organism-specific biosystem
    Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
  • Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Selenium Pathway
  • Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemSerotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endoc...
  • Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX), organism-specific biosystemThe bioactive prostaglandin (PG) signalling molecules, including PGA2, PGE2, PGF2a, and PGI2 (prostacyclin) are synthesised from arachidonic acid and its products by various prostaglandin synthase ty...
  • prostanoid biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    prostanoid biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem
    prostanoid biosynthesis
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
dioxygenase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
heme binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
peroxidase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
arachidonic acid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cyclooxygenase pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cyclooxygenase pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
lipid metabolic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
oxidation-reduction process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
prostaglandin biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of blood pressure ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to oxidative stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
xenobiotic metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
nucleus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
photoreceptor outer segment IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Names
prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
PGH synthase 1
cyclooxygenase-1
prostaglandin H2 synthase 1
NP_000953.2
NP_001258093.1
NP_001258094.1
NP_001258095.1
NP_001258296.1
NP_001258297.1
NP_542158.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_032900.1 

    Range
    4581..29754
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000962.3NP_000953.2  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 1 precursor

    See proteins identical to NP_000953.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI813317, AL162424, AL359636, DA392280, M59979
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6842.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23219
    Related
    ENSP00000354612, OTTHUMP00000022052, ENST00000362012, OTTHUMT00000053933
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd09816
    Location:89575
    Blast Score: 1969
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    cd00054
    Location:3269
    Blast Score: 95
    EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
    pfam03098
    Location:145581
    Blast Score: 1013
    An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
  2. NM_001271164.1NP_001258093.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 3 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an alternate exon in the coding region, compared to isoform 1. The encoded isoform (3) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI813317, AL162424, AL359636, CD014048, DA392280
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd09816
    Location:89527
    Blast Score: 1758
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    cd00054
    Location:3269
    Blast Score: 95
    EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
    pfam03098
    Location:138533
    Blast Score: 960
    An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
  3. NM_001271165.1NP_001258094.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 4

    See proteins identical to NP_001258094.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at an alternate downstream in-frame start site, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI813317, AK290022, AK304403, AL359636
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS59521.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23219
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd09816
    Location:2466
    Blast Score: 1899
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    pfam03098
    Location:36472
    Blast Score: 1021
    An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
  4. NM_001271166.1NP_001258095.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 5

    See proteins identical to NP_001258095.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR and contains multiple differences in the coding region, compared to variant 1. These differences result in initiation of translation at an alternate downstream in-frame start site, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (5) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI813317, AK295221, AK308222, AL162424, AL359636
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23219
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd09816
    Location:2429
    Blast Score: 1722
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    pfam03098
    Location:36435
    Blast Score: 932
    An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
  5. NM_001271367.1NP_001258296.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 5

    See proteins identical to NP_001258296.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) uses two alternate splice sites at internal exons, compared to variant 1. These differences result in initiation of translation at an alternate downstream in-frame start site, compared to variant 1. The primary ORF can be translated due to a combination of reinitiation and leaky scanning. The encoded isoform (5) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI813317, AL162424, AL359636, CD014049, DA392280
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd09816
    Location:2429
    Blast Score: 1722
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    pfam03098
    Location:36435
    Blast Score: 932
    An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
  6. NM_001271368.1NP_001258297.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 6

    See proteins identical to NP_001258297.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at an alternate start site, compared to variant 1. The primary ORF can be translated due to a combination of reinitiation and leaky scanning. The encoded isoform (6) is shorter and has a distinct N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI813317, AK295221, AK308222, AL162424, AL359636
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS59520.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23219
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd09816
    Location:64513
    Blast Score: 1791
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    cd00054
    Location:844
    Blast Score: 90
    EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
    pfam03098
    Location:120519
    Blast Score: 924
    An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
  7. NM_080591.2NP_542158.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 2 precursor

    See proteins identical to NP_542158.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI813317, AL162424, AL359636, DA392280, S36219
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6843.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23219
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd09816
    Location:89538
    Blast Score: 1793
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    cd00054
    Location:3269
    Blast Score: 93
    EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
    pfam03098
    Location:145544
    Blast Score: 925
    An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000009.12 

    Range
    122370530..122395703
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_005252105.1XP_005252162.1  

    See proteins identical to XP_005252162.1

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd09816
    Location:64550
    Blast Score: 1968
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    cd00054
    Location:844
    Blast Score: 91
    EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
    pfam03098
    Location:120556
    Blast Score: 1012
    An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
  2. XM_006717192.1XP_006717255.1  

    See proteins identical to XP_006717255.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P23219
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd09816
    Location:64513
    Blast Score: 1791
    prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
    cd00054
    Location:844
    Blast Score: 90
    EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
    pfam03098
    Location:120519
    Blast Score: 924
    An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000141.1 

    Range
    94747532..94772698
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018920.2 

    Range
    125280871..125306038
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

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